# ASTM F1016-07 (Reapproved 2013)e1

Designation: F1016 − 07 (Reapproved 2013)´1Standard Practice forLinear Tire Treadwear Data Analysis1This standard is issued under the fixed designation F1016; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year oforiginal adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. Asuperscript epsilon (´) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.ε1NOTE—Editorial corrections made throughout in June 2013.1. Scope1.1 This practice describes the elementary linear regressionanalysis of basic treadwear data as obtained according to TestMethod F421 and Test Method F762.1.2 The basic treadwear data are obtained as groove depthloss measurements by procedures described in Test MethodF421 after a series of test cycles (test distances under specifiedconditions) according to Test Method F762.1.3 A linear regression analysis is performed for the rela-tionship between average tire tread depth and the test distancetraveled by the test vehicle, on which the test tires are mounted.From this analysis a rate of wear is determined: groove depthloss per unit distance.1.4 Linear treadwear is defined as an essentially constantrate of wear, after break-in, which results in a linear regressioncoefficient of determination, R2, equal to or greater than 0.95when obtained for a data set where the number of measurementintervals, n, is at least 3. Each measurement interval representsa specific test distance.1.5 This practice is not applicable to the prediction oftreadlife for tires that exhibit non-linear or irregular treadwear.1.6 Evaluation parameters are given for both SI and inch-pound units; either may be used. The evaluation parameters asdefined are ones typically used in the tire testing industry andno special claim is made for superiority of these parametersand terms over other terms and parameters that may bedeveloped.2. Referenced Documents2.1 ASTM Standards:2F421 Test Method for Measuring Groove and Void Depth inPassenger Car TiresF538 Terminology Relating to the Characteristics and Per-formance of TiresF762 Test Method for Determining Change in Groove (orVoid) Depth With Distance Traveled for Passenger CarTires3. Terminology3.1 Definitions:3.1.1 average tire tread depth, [L],n—the average of all tiregroove (void) depth measurements. F5383.1.2 break-in, [L],n—one or more periods of initial stan-dardized tire operation during which tire is brought to the statewhich will lead to more consistent test results. F5383.1.3 fastest wearing groove, [L],n—the circumferentialgroove with the minimum life expectancy. F5383.1.4 fastest wearing location, [L],n—that location whichexhibits the highest percent tread (depth) loss as calculated in6.1.1. F5383.1.5 groove, average depth, [L],n—the average of all tiregroove depth measurements in a single groove. F5383.1.6 projected treadlife, [L],n—the test distance that givesh as the average tread depth; where h is the height of treadwearindicator above groove (or void) base. F5383.1.7 test distance, [L],n—distance traveled by a vehicleafter tire break-in. F5384. Summary of Practice4.1 This practice provides a calculation procedure for linearregression analysis of treadwear data to be used in the tireindustry for assessing tire treadwear performance.4.2 No specific mathematical formulas are given for thecustomary least-squares calculations used for linear regressionparameter evaluation since these calculation algorithms arereadily available with electronic hand calculators or statisticalsoftware for personal computers, or both. Terms are defined forslope, intercept, and coefficient of determination.1This practice is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee F09 on Tires and isthe direct responsibility of Subcommittee F09.30 on Laboratory (Non-Vehicular)Testing.Current edition approved June 1, 2013. Published September 2013. Originallyapproved in 1986. Last previous edition approved in 2007 as F1016 – 07. DOI:10.1520/F1016-07R13E01.2For referenced ASTM standards, visit the ASTM website, www.astm.org, orcontact ASTM Customer Service at service@astm.org. For Annual Book of ASTMStandards volume information, refer to the standard’s Document Summary page onthe ASTM website.Copyright © ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959. United States15. Significance and Use5.1 The purpose of this practice is to standardize themeaning and derivation of some terms and indexes that arecommonly used to characterize treadwear.5.1.1 There is no intent to recommend either of the twotreadwear performance indexes: distance per unit loss of treaddepth or loss of tread depth per distance unit.6. Calculation6.1 Use the following calculations and terms to reporttreadwear:6.1.1 The percentage tread (depth) loss (PTL) expresses theloss of tread depth as a percent of the initial tread depth (to thetread-depth indicators), as follows:PTL 5FX¯i2 X¯kX¯i2 hG3100 (1)where:X¯i= average tread depth after a break-in (see 3.1.1 or 3.1.2),X¯k= average tread depth at a given observation or testdistance (see 3.1.1 or 3.1.7), andh = height of treadwear indicator above groove (or void)base.6.1.2 The percentage tread (depth) remaining (PTR) ex-presses the remaining tread depth as a percent of the initialtread depth (to the tread-depth indicators), as follows:PTR 5 100 2 PTL (2)6.1.3 The rate of wear, RW, is obtained as the slope, b(either for SI or inch-pound units), of the regression line ofaverage tire tread depth (y-variable) versus the test distance(x-variable). See 3.1.1 and 3.1.7 for definitions. The interceptof the regression line on the tread depth axis is defined by theterm a.6.1.3.1 Specifically, rate of wear RW is defined as follows:RW ~in mm/1000 km! 5 1000 3 b~M! (3)where b(M) = slope of regression line (metric units), mm/kmandRW ~in mils/1000 miles! 5 1000 3 b~E! (4)where b(E) = slope of regression line (English units), milsper mile (1 mil = 0.001 in.).NOTE 1—For the rate of wear in this practice, the selected SI unit fortest distance is 1000 km. The selected unit for tread depth is themillimetre. For strict SI use the metre (m) should be used. If this is used,then tread depths should be expressed in terms of nanometres (mm) (10–9m) to produce roughly equivalent magnitude numbers to the mil/1000miles inch-pound units usage. The use of the nanometres per metreexpression presents difficulties in conceptualization of treadwear rates thatis, it is easier to think in terms of millimetres/1000 km than nanometres/metre.6.1.4 The inverse rate of wear (IRW) is the test distancetraveled after break-in per unit loss in tread depth, as given in(Eq 5) in SI units and in (Eq 6) in inch-pound units as follows:IRW~1000 km/mm! 51RW~ mm/1000 km!(5)IRW~1000 mi/mil! 51RW~ mils/1000 mi!(6)where RW = absolute loss in tread depth per unit testdistance after break-in.6.1.5 The wear performance index, a calculated value thatrelates the wear performance of a candidate tire to that of acontrol tire tested in the same test, may alternatively becalculated on the basis of either percent loss or tread depth ((Eq7)) to give TLI, a treadlife index, or on the basis of rate of wear((Eq 8)) to give TWI, a treadwear index. The two areequivalent if the initial tread depth of the candidate tire is equalto that of the control tire.TLI 5% loss in control tire% loss in candidate tire3100 (7)TWI 5RW of control tireRW of candidate tire3100 (8)6.1.5.1 The inverse of each of these expressions may also beused.7. Projected Treadlife Considerations7.1 Projected treadlife is usually calculated for each tire in aset so that tire-to-tire variances, as well as overall means, maybe considered.7.2 If wear rates are linear, a knowledge of the wear ratepermits a prediction of the travel distance to wear-out, that is,to the wear indicators. In the inch-pound system of units this isoften called the projected mileage.7.3 Different ribs or blocks on a tread surface often wear atdifferent rates. When this happens the end point for treadwearmay be determined from that at the fastest wearing location.7.4 Types of Projected Treadlife7.4.1 Uniform Treadwear:7.4.1.1 Projected Tread Life (TL) of tires demonstratinglinear treadwear and uniform tread depths around the circum-ference of the tire (uniform within 10 % of the mean treaddepths for each groove) is calculated in (Eq 9) in kilometersand (Eq 10) in miles:TL~km! 5 1000h ~mm! 2 aRW~mm/1000 km!1break-in ~km! (9)where:h = height of tread wear indicator, mm,a = intercept (on tread depth axis) of the regression linefor regression of loss in mm and test distance in km,andRW = rate of wear, mm/1000 km.TL~mi! 5 1000h ~mils! 2 aRW~ mils/1000 mi!1break-in ~mi! (10)where:h = height of tread wear indicator, mils,a = intercept (on tread depth axis) of the regression linefor regression of loss in mils and test distance inmiles, andRW = rate of wear, mils/1000 miles.F1016 − 07 (2013)´127.4.1.2 Alternatively, the depth loss at the fastest wearinglocation or groove may be used instead of the average tire treaddepth, as defined in 3.1.1, for calculating the rate of wear.Under these conditions RW would refer to the rate of wear ofthe fastest wearing groove or other location and TL wouldrepresent the projected treadlife of the tire on the basis of thisrapid wearing location.7.4.1.3 Normally h is 1.59 mm or 63 mils (0.063 in.) forpassenger car tires, and tread depth is the mean distance to thebottom of the groove at locations apart from the treadwearindicators.7.4.2 Non-Uniform Treadwear—If the tread depths are lin-ear with traveled distance but not uniform to within 10 % of themean tread depths around the circumference of the tire, thetreadlife projection should be made for the fastest wearinglocation. This is accomplished by using the groove depth lossat this location rather than the average tire tread depth.8. Keywords8.1 groove depth; linear; linear tire treadwear; tread depth;treadwear; wear-outASTM International takes no position respecting the validity of any patent rights asserted in connection with any item mentionedin this standard. Users of this standard are expressly advised that determination of the validity of any such patent rights, and the riskof infringement of such rights, are entirely their own responsibility.This standard is subject to revision at any time by the responsible technical committee and must be reviewed every five years andif not revised, either reapproved or withdrawn. Your comments are invited either for revision of this standard or for additional standardsand should be addressed to ASTM International Headquarters. Your comments will receive careful consideration at a meeting of theresponsible technical committee, which you may attend. If you feel that your comments have not received a fair hearing you shouldmake your views known to the ASTM Committee on Standards, at the address shown below.This standard is copyrighted by ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959,United States. Individual reprints (single or multiple copies) of this standard may be obtained by contacting ASTM at the aboveaddress or at 610-832-9585 (phone), 610-832-9555 (fax), or service@astm.org (e-mail); or through the ASTM website(www.astm.org). Permission rights to photocopy the standard may also be secured from the ASTM website (www.astm.org/COPYRIGHT/).F1016 − 07 (2013)´13