# ASTM E701-80 (Reapproved 2010)

Designation: E701 − 80 (Reapproved 2010)Standard Test Methods forMunicipal Ferrous Scrap1This standard is issued under the fixed designation E701; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year oforiginal adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. Asuperscript epsilon (´) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.1. Scope1.1 These test methods cover various tests for assessing theusefulness of a ferrous fraction recovered from municipalwastes.1.2 These test methods comprise both chemical and physi-cal tests, as follows:SectionSampling 5Bulk Density 6Total Combustibles 7Chemical Analysis (for Industries Other Than theDetinning Industry)8Magnetic Fraction (for the Detinning Industry) 9Chemical Analysis for Tin (for the Detinning Industry) 10Metallic Yield for All Industries Other Than the CopperIndustry and the Detinning Industry111.3 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regardedas standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematicalconversions to SI units that are provided for information onlyand are not considered standard.1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of thesafety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is theresponsibility of the user of this standard to establish appro-priate safety and health practices and determine the applica-bility of regulatory limitations prior to use.2. Referenced Documents2.1 ASTM Standards:2C29/C29M Test Method for Bulk Density (“Unit Weight”)and Voids in AggregateC702 Practice for Reducing Samples ofAggregate to TestingSizeD2234/D2234M Practice for Collection of a Gross Sampleof CoalE30 Test Methods for ChemicalAnalysis of Steel, Cast Iron,Open-Hearth Iron, and Wrought Iron (Withdrawn 1995)3E122 Practice for Calculating Sample Size to Estimate, WithSpecified Precision, the Average for a Characteristic of aLot or ProcessE350 Test Methods for Chemical Analysis of Carbon Steel,Low-Alloy Steel, Silicon Electrical Steel, Ingot Iron, andWrought IronE351 Test Methods for ChemicalAnalysis of Cast Iron—AllTypesE415 Test Method for Atomic Emission Vacuum Spectro-metric Analysis of Carbon and Low-Alloy SteelE702 Specification for Municipal Ferrous Scrap3. Significance and Use3.1 The establishment of these test methods for municipalferrous scrap as a raw material for certain industries (seeSpecification E702) will aid commerce in such scrap byproviding the chemical and physical tests for the characteriza-tion of the scrap needed as a basis for communication betweenthe purchaser and supplier.4. Hazards4.1 Due to the origins of municipal ferrous scrap in wastedestined for disposal, common sense dictates that some pre-cautions should be observed when conducting tests on thesamples. Recommended hygienic practices include usinggloves when handling municipal ferrous scrap and washinghands before eating or smoking.5. Sampling5.1 Gross Sample of Loose Ferrous Scrap:5.1.1 Take a minimum of one gross sample having a volumeof7ft3(0.2 m3) (approximately equal to a 55-gal drum).Guidance for determining the number of gross samples neededto characterize a given lot of material and methods foraccumulating a gross sample can be found in Practice E122 andTest Method D2234/D2234M, respectively. In all cases, theactual sampling procedures to be used and the number of grosssamples required to obtain a representative sample of the lotshall be established in accordance with an agreement betweenthe purchaser and supplier.1These test methods are under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee D34 onWaste Management and are the direct responsibility of Subcommittee D34.03 onTreatment, Recovery and Reuse.Current edition approved Jan. 1, 2010. Published January 2010. Originallyapproved in 1980. Last previous edition approved in 2005 as E701-80(2005). DOI:10.1520/E0701-80R10.2For referenced ASTM standards, visit the ASTM website, www.astm.org, orcontact ASTM Customer Service at service@astm.org. For Annual Book of ASTMStandards volume information, refer to the standard’s Document Summary page onthe ASTM website.3The last approved version of this historical standard is referenced onwww.astm.org.Copyright © ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959. United States15.1.2 Air-dry the gross sample at ambient temperature for aperiod of 24 h by spreading the sample on a clean, dry surfaceto one-layer thickness. Protect the sample from contaminationby falling dust and debris. Reduce the gross sample to foursamples by the method of coning and quartering, as describedin Method B of Practice C702.5.2 Gross Sample of Baled Ferrous Scrap—Take a mini-mum of two bales. Guidance for determining the number ofbales needed to characterize a given lot of material andmethods for selecting the bales can be found in Practice E122.In all cases, the actual sampling procedures to be used and thenumber of gross samples required to obtain a representativesample of the lot shall be established in accordance with anagreement between the purchaser and supplier.6. Bulk Density6.1 Loose Ferrous Scrap:6.1.1 Apparatus:6.1.1.1 Container, constructed of suitable materials, forexample, plywood, having the following approximate internaldimensions: base of 1 by 1 ft (300 by 300 mm) and a height ofat least 2 ft (600 mm). Measure the internal dimensions of thebox to the nearest 0.1 in. (3 mm). Suitable handles may beattached to the exterior of the container to aid in subsequenthandling. Alternatively, containers of other geometries, agree-able to the purchaser and supplier, may be employed providedthe area of the base is at least 1 ft2(0.09 m2).NOTE 1—The operator should be aware that this test method is notintended for those occasional pieces whose size is of the order of thedimensions of the box. As a guide, the maximum length of a single pieceshould not exceed three fourths of the maximum dimension of the base.6.1.1.2 Balance or Scale, accurate within 0.1 % of the testload within the range of use. The range of use shall beconsidered to extend from the weight of the container empty tothe weight of the container plus its contents at 100 lb/ft3(1600kg/m3).6.1.1.3 Measuring Rod, calibrated in 0.1-in. (3-mm) inter-vals having a blunt end with an area of 4 in.2(26 cm2).6.1.2 Procedure:6.1.2.1 Use each of the four samples from 5.1.2 to deter-mine the bulk density.6.1.2.2 Before each determination, weigh the empty con-tainer to the nearest 0.1 lb (0.05 kg).6.1.2.3 Place oversize pieces, likely to protrude above thesurface of the material in the container, at the bottom of thecontainer prior to filling with the remainder of the sample.6.1.2.4 Fill the container in three approximately equallayers. After each layer, place the container on a firm base, forexample, a concrete floor, raising the opposite sides alternatelyabout 2 in. (50 mm) and allowing the container to drop in sucha manner as to hit with a sharp, resounding impact. Do thissettling step ten times, five times on each side, in the mannerdescribed. Level the surface of the material manually tominimize surface irregularities.6.1.2.5 Using the measuring rod described in 6.1.1.3, mea-sure the distance from the top of the container to the surface ofthe material to the nearest 0.1 in. (3 mm) in each of the fourcorners of the container. Subtract the average of the fourmeasurements from the inside height of the container todetermine the height of the material.6.1.2.6 Weigh the filled container to the nearest 0.1 lb (0.05kg).6.1.3 Calculation— Calculate the bulk density as follows:Bulk density, lb/ft3~kg/m3! 5a 2 bc 3d 3e3f (1)where:a = weight of container plus material, lb (or kg),b = weight of container, lb (or kg),c = inside length of container base, in. (or m),d = inside depth of container base, in. (or m),e = height of material in container, in. (or m),f = 1 for container dimensions measured in metres, or 1728for container dimensions measured in inches.6.1.4 Report—Report each bulk density determination andthe average of the four determinations.6.2 Baled Ferrous Scrap:6.2.1 Procedure:6.2.1.1 Determine the weight of each bale from 5.2 to thenearest 0.1 lb (0.05 kg) using a scale described in 6.1.1.2.6.2.1.2 Measure individually the length, width, and heightof the bale to the nearest 0.1 in. (3 mm).6.2.2 Calculations— Calculate the bulk density as follows:Bulk density, lb/ft3~kg/m3! 5gh 3i 3j3k (2)where:g = weight of bale, lb (or kg),h = length of bale, in. (or m),i = width of bale, in. (or m),j = height of bale, in. (or m),k = 1 for bale dimensions measured in metres, or 1728 forbale dimensions measured in inches.6.2.3 Report—Report each bulk density determination andthe average of all of the determinations.7. Total Combustibles7.1 Procedure:7.1.1 Use two of the four bulk density volumes from 6.1.2.1for the total combustibles determination. Reduce the size ofeach sample, if necessary, to approximately 20 lb (9.1 kg) bythe method of coning and quartering, as described in Method Bof Practice C702. Determine the weight of each of the twosamples to the nearest 0.1 lb (0.05 kg) before heating.7.1.2 Heat each of the two samples in excess air at 750°F(400°C) for 60 min. An external source of air at low flow ratesand pressures can be introduced at several locations within thesample to provide for combustion and excess air. The samplemay be stirred every 15 min to expose fresh surface. Determinethe weight of each of the two samples after heating to thenearest 0.1 lb (0.05 kg).NOTE 2—For example, the amount of air needed can be estimated as inthe following example:E701 − 80 (2010)2Assume a 20-lb (9-kg) sample containing 10 % combustibles that are40 % carbon. For complete combustion, the amount of carbon to beremoved is:20 30.1 30.4 5 0.8 lb (3)For the combustion reaction C + O2=CO2, 0.8 lb of carbon requires0.8 × (32 lb/lb·mol)/(12 lb/lb·mol) = 2.13 lb of oxygen or 2.13 × (359 ft3/lb·mol)/(32 lb/lb·mol) of O2= 23.9 ft3of oxygen at standard temperatureand pressure (STP).Assuming the oxygen contribution from the sample iszero, and since air is 21 % oxygen by volume, 23.9/0.21 = 114 ft3of air atSTP is required to react with the carbon. For air at 25°C (77°F), thevolume of air required is 114 × (273 + 25)/273 = 124 ft3, and assuming a50 % excess air requirement, the total air necessary is 124 + 0.5 = 186ft3. For a combustion time of 60 min, the flow rate of air needed is186/60 = 3.1 ft3/min.7.2 Calculation— Calculate the total combustibles as fol-lows:Total combustibles, weight% 5 @1 2 ~w1/w2!# 3100 (4)where:w1= sample weight after heating, andw2= sample weight before heating.7.3 Report—Report each determination of total combus-tibles and the average of the two determinations.8. Chemical Analysis (for Industries Other Than theDetinning Industry)8.1 Reduce the two bulk density volumes remaining afterSection 7 to two 30-lb (13.6-kg) samples, if necessary, andmelt each in an induction furnace under a blanket of argon gas.8.2 Take a sample of each melt and prepare for chemicalanalysis in accordance with one of the following test methods:E30, E350, E351, E415, or to procedures mutually agreed uponby the purchaser and the supplier.8.3 Report the chemical composition of each melt and theaverage composition of the two melts.9. Magnetic Fraction (for the Detinning Industry)9.1 Procedure:9.1.1 Weigh each of the two bulk density volumes remain-ing after Section 7 to 0.1 lb (0.05 kg) and manually separateusing a hand magnet into two fractions: magnetic and nonmag-netic.9.1.2 Wash the magnetic fraction in a galvanized tub ofapproximately 20-gal (0.08-m3) capacity for 2 min with 180°F(82°C) water. Locate a 2-in. quick-drain valve, or equivalent, atthe base of the tub to drain the water and wash the residue.When the drain valve is opened, use water from a garden hosefor approximately 1 min to wash off any remaining residue.Place a1⁄4-in. (6.3-mm) hardware cloth with sufficient screen-ing area at the exit of the drain valve to collect any of themagnetic fraction that may be washed out through the drainvalve during draining of the tub. Next, repeat the previouslydescribed wash cycle. Manually remove the magnetic fractionfrom the tub and drain, if necessary, any residue or retainedwater, or both, from the individual pieces. After draining thewater, air-dry the magnetic fraction at ambient temperature fora period of 24 h by spreading the sample onto a clean, drysurface to one-layer thickness, or as required by Test MethodC29/C29M, and weigh to the nearest 0.1 lb (0.05 kg). Whiledrying, protect the sample from contamination by falling dustand debris.9.2 Calculation— Calculate the magnetic fraction as fol-lows:Magnetic fraction, weight% 5w3w43100 (5)where:w3= weight of magnetic fraction, andw4= weight of as-received sample (from 9.1.1).9.3 Report—Report each determination of the magneticfraction and the average of the two determinations.10. Chemical Analysis for Tin (for the DetinningIndustry)10.1 Procedure:10.1.1 Separate manually each dried magnetic portion fromSection 9 into “cans and other.” Weigh the can and otherfractions to the nearest 0.1 lb (0.05 kg). Prepare the canfraction for sampling by compacting it to sufficient density tomaintain its integrity during subsequent drilling. The cylindri-cal compact should have a volume of approximately 10 in.3(160 cm3).10.1.2 Drill two1⁄4-in. (6-mm) holes through the cylinderfrom top to bottom. Locate the holes on the base of thecylinder, midway between the cylinder axis and the cylinderedge on a common diameter.10.1.3 Combine the drillings from the two holes for thechemical analysis described in 10.1.5. Exercise caution toensure the collection of all drillings.NOTE 3—Experience has shown that approximately 20 g of drillings isa sufficient sample for the tin analysis.10.1.4 Alternatively, the can fraction can be sampled by anyother procedure mutually agreed upon between the purchaserand the supplier.10.1.5 Prepare the sample for tin analysis in accordancewith Sections IIIA and IIIB1 of the Treatise on AnalyticalChemistry4or to procedures mutually agreeable to the pur-chaser and the supplier. The analysis result is the weightpercent tin in the can fraction.10.2 Calculation— Calculate the tin content as follows:Tin content of as 2 received sample, weight% 5w5w63w7(6)where:w5= weight of can fraction,w6= weight of as-received sample (from 9.1.1), andw7= weight % of tin in can fraction.10.3 Report—Report the tin content as percent tin by weightof the as-received sample.4Treatise on Analytical Chemistry, edited by Kolthoff, Elving, and Sandell, PartII, Vol 3, Interscience Publishers, New York, N. Y., 1961.E701 − 80 (2010)311. Metallic Yield for All Industries Other Than theCopper Industry and the Detinning Industry11.1 Procedure—–Determine the metallic yield from eachof the samples used for the chemical analysis in Section 8.11.2 Calculation— Calculate the metallic yield as follows:Metallic yield,