# ASTM D2890-92 (Reapproved 2013)

Designation: D2890 − 92 (Reapproved 2013)Standard Test Method forCalculation of Liquid Heat Capacity of Petroleum DistillateFuels1This standard is issued under the fixed designation D2890; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year oforiginal adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. Asuperscript epsilon (´) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.1. Scope1.1 This test method covers the calculation of liquid heatcapacity, Btu/lb · °F (kJ/kg · K), at atmospheric pressure, ofpetroleum fuels for which distillation data may be obtained inaccordance with Test Method D86 without reaching a decom-position point prior to obtaining 90 volume % distilled.1.2 This test method is not applicable at temperatures lessthan 0°F (−18°C) and greater than 60°F (16°C) above thevolumetric average boiling point of the fuel.1.3 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regardedas standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematicalconversions to SI units that are provided for information onlyand are not considered standard.1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of thesafety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is theresponsibility of the user of this standard to establish appro-priate safety and health practices and determine the applica-bility of regulatory limitations prior to use.2. Referenced Documents2.1 ASTM Standards:2D86 Test Method for Distillation of Petroleum Products atAtmospheric PressureD287 Test Method for API Gravity of Crude Petroleum andPetroleum Products (Hydrometer Method)3. Summary of Test Method3.1 The Watson characterization factor, K, is obtained froma graphical correlation relating determined Test Method D86distillation data and K. The liquid heat capacity is obtained,either graphically or mathematically, from correlations relatingcalculated heat capacity, temperature at which heat capacity isbeing calculated, determined API gravity, and K.NOTE 1—Details of the method have been published.34. Significance and Use4.1 Heat capacities obtained by this method are those atatmospheric pressure. However, because the temperature rangeis low, the calculated values are similar to saturated liquid heatcapacities in the temperature-pressure range required for mostengineering design.5. Data Requirements5.1 Distillation temperatures at (in °F) 10, 30, 50, 70, and 90volume % distilled obtained in accordance with Test MethodD86.5.2 API gravity determined in accordance with Test MethodD287 or a method of equivalent accuracy.6. Procedure6.1 Calculate to the nearest 0.1 unit the slope of the TestMethod D86 distillation curve, °F/volume %, as the differencebetween the 10 and 90 volume % distilled temperatures di-vided by 80.6.2 Calculate to the nearest 1°F the volumetric averageboiling point (VABP) as the sum of Test Method D86 10, 30,50, 70, and 90 volume % distilled temperatures divided by 5.6.3 Obtain a temperature correction to the nearest 1°F fromFig. 1, using the slope and VABPcalculated in accordance with6.1 and 6.2. Calculate the mean average boiling point (Me-ABP) as the VABP plus the correction.6.4 Obtain to the nearest 0.1 unit the Watson characteriza-tion factor, K, from Fig. 2 using the determined API gravityand calculated MeABP.6.5 Obtain the calculated heat capacity at each specifiedtemperature, either graphically from Fig. 3 or by solving thefollowing equation:1This test method is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee D02 onPetroleum Products and Lubricants and is the direct responsibility of SubcommitteeD02.04.0K on Correlative Methods.Current edition approved May 1, 2013. Published August 2013. Originallyapproved in 1970. Last previous edition approved in 2008 as D2890 – 92 (2008).DOI: 10.1520/D2890-92R13.2For referenced ASTM standards, visit the ASTM website, www.astm.org, orcontact ASTM Customer Service at service@astm.org. For Annual Book of ASTMStandards volume information, refer to the standard’s Document Summary page onthe ASTM website.3Technical Data Book-Petroleum Refining, Chapter 7, American PetroleumInstitute, Division of Refining, 1220 L St. NW, Washington, DC 20005.Copyright © ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959. United States1Cp5 @0.6811 2 0.308 G1~0.000815 2 0.000306 G!T# (1)~0.055 K10.35!where:Cp= heat capacity, Btu/lb · °F,G = specific gravity,T = temperature, °F, andK = Watson characterization factor.NOTE 2—The broken lines in Fig. 3 illustrate the graphical procedurefor the following example:Calculate the heat capacity at atmospheric pressure and 190°F of apetroleum distillate fuel having anAPI gravity of 40 and Test Method D86distillation temperatures of 239, 261, 288, 321, and 367 F at 10, 30, 50, 70,and 90 volume % distilled, respectively. The volumetric average boilingpoint (VABP) is 295°F, and the slope is 1.60. The temperature correctionobtained from Fig. 1 is − 9°F, and the mean average boiling point is 286°F.The value of K obtained from Fig. 2 is 11.0. The heat capacity obtained asshown in Fig. 3 is 0.51 Btu/lb · °F.7. Report7.1 Report the results to the nearest 0.01 Btu/lb · °F.7.2 The heat capacity, Btu/lb · °F may be converted to theInternational System of Units (SI) of kilojoule per kilogramFIG. 1 Test Method D86 Distillation Data CorrelationFIG. 2 Watson Characterization Factor (K), API Gravity, andMean Average Boiling PointFIG. 3 Liquid Heat Capacity of Petroleum Distillate FuelsD2890 − 92 (2013)2kelvin (kJ/kg · K) by multiplying the results obtained in 7.1 bythe conversion factor 4.186800 and then rounding to theappropriate number of significant digits.8. Precision and Bias8.1 The following criteria should be used for judging theacceptability of results (95 % probability).8.1.1 Repeatability—The difference between successive testresults, obtained by the same operator with the same apparatusunder constant operating conditions on identical test material,would, in the long run, in the normal and correct operation ofthe test method, exceed the following value only in one case intwenty:0.01 Btu/lb·°F ~0.04 kJ/kg·K! (2)8.1.2 Reproducibility—The difference between two, singleand independent results, obtained by different operators work-ing in different laboratories on identical test material, would, inthe long run, in the normal and correct operation of the testmethod, exceed the following value only one case in twenty:0.02 Btu/lb·°F ~0.08 kJ/kg·K! (3)NOTE 3—The preceding repeatability and reproducibility were obtainedfrom results submitted by seven laboratories that cooperatively tested fourturbine fuels with initial boiling points in the range 320 to 400°F (160 to204°C), and end points in the range 430 to 535°F (221 to 279°C). Eachlaboratory determined the required distillation and gravity data induplicate, and performed the procedures graphically once for each of thetwo sets of determined data for each sample. Heat capacities of the fuelswere not determined during the cooperative program.8.2 The accuracy of this test method has been reported3aswithin 4 % for straight-run petroleum fractions and approxi-mately 8 % for pure olefins.8.3 Bias—Since there is no accepted reference materialsuitable for determining bias for this test method, no statementof bias can be made.9. Keywords9.1 liquid heat capacity; petroleum distillateASTM International takes no position respecting the validity of any patent rights asserted in connection with any item mentionedin this standard. Users of this standard are expressly advised that determination of the validity of any such patent rights, and the riskof infringement of such rights, are entirely their own responsibility.This standard is subject to revision at any time by the responsible technical committee and must be reviewed every five years andif not revised, either reapproved or withdrawn. Your comments are invited either for revision of this standard or for additional standardsand should be addressed to ASTM International Headquarters. Your comments will receive careful consideration at a meeting of theresponsible technical committee, which you may attend. 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