# ASTM D1244-98 (Reapproved 2011)

Designation: D1244 − 98 (Reapproved 2011)Standard Practice forDesignation of Yarn Construction1This standard is issued under the fixed designation D1244; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year oforiginal adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. Asuperscript epsilon (´) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.INTRODUCTIONThis practice conforms in general with the practices adopted by the International Organization forStandardization in Document ISO 1139, Designation of Yarns. The ISO document, however, coversthe use of the tex direct yarn numbering system only, whereas ASTM Practice D1244, as in previoustexts, also covers other direct yarn numbering systems and traditional indirect yarn numberingsystems.1. Scope1.1 This practice covers instructions for the designation ofyarn construction and is applicable to single yarns, plied yarns,and cabled yarns or cords of filaments or spun fibers. Theapplication of the practice to specific cases is illustrated withexamples. This practice does not cover the description ofnovelty yarns or core spun yarns of various types.1.2 The primary purpose of this practice is to establish areference system for use in the trade and particularly for use incorrespondence and publications. To secure a simplifiednotation, certain portions may be omitted provided there is nodoubt as to the omitted parts.1.3 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regardedas standard. No other units of measurement are included in thisstandard.1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of thesafety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is theresponsibility of the user of this standard to establish appro-priate safety and health practices and determine the applica-bility of regulatory limitations prior to use.2. Referenced Documents2.1 ASTM Standards:2D123 Terminology Relating to TextilesD861 Practice for Use of the Tex System to Designate LinearDensity of Fibers, Yarn Intermediates, and Yarns2.2 ISO Standard:3ISO 1139 Designation of Yarns3. Terminology3.1 Definitions:3.1.1 resultant yarn number, n—the yarn number based onthe observed mass per unit length of a plied yarn, a cabled yarn,or a yarn whose number has been changed by processing suchas twisting or bulking.3.1.1.1 Discussion—A calculated yarn number obtainedfrom the yarn number(s) of the components should not becalled a resultant yarn number.3.1.2 For definitions of other textile terms used in thispractice, refer to Terminology D123.4. Explanation of Abbreviations and Symbols4.1 B—A symbol designating the resultant yarn number ofbulked yarns, to be placed before the numerical value.4.2 R—A symbol designating the resultant yarn number ofplied or cabled yarns, to be placed before the numerical value.4.3 ×—The multiplication symbol is used before the num-ber of identical component strands combined in any stage ofmanufacture for yarns numbered in a direct yarn numberingsystem.4.4 +—The plus sign is used to denote the addition orcombination of dissimilar component strands in a more com-plex structure.4.5 /—When used with direct yarn numbers, the solidusdenotes the separation of a structure numbered in a direct yarnnumbering system into its component strands. When used withindirect yarn numbers, the solidus denotes combining (plying)1This practice is under the jurisdiction ofASTM Committee D13 on Textiles andis the direct responsibility of Subcommittee D13.58 on Yarns and Fibers.Current edition approved Dec. 1, 2011. Published January 2012. Originallyapproved in 1952. Last previous edition approved in 2005 as D1244–98(2005).DOI: 10.1520/D1244-98R11.2For referenced ASTM standards, visit the ASTM website, www.astm.org, orcontact ASTM Customer Service at service@astm.org. For Annual Book of ASTMStandards volume information, refer to the standard’s Document Summary page onthe ASTM website.3Available from American National Standards Institute (ANSI), 25 W. 43rd St.,4th Floor, New York, NY 10036, http://www.ansi.org.Copyright © ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959. United States1of identical component strands, numbered in an indirect yarnnumbering system. See also Note 2.4.6 f—An abbreviation for filaments, to be placed before thenumber of filaments.4.7 t0—Symbol indicating zero twist in a yarn.4.8 tpi—An abbreviation for turns of twist per inch in ayarn.4.9 tpm—An abbreviation for turns of twist per metre in ayarn.4.10 ( )—Parentheses are used to enclose information de-scribing the material from which the yarn is made.4.11 [ ]—Brackets are used to enclose the description ofdissimilar components forming a subcomponent of a cabledyarn or cord.4.12 { }—Braces are used to enclose the description ofdissimilar components forming a multiple wound yarn, pliedyarn, cabled yarn, or cord.4.13 Nec—Abbreviation for cotton count.4.14 Nww—Abbreviation for worsted count.4.15 Nwe—Abbreviation for woolen run.4.16 den.—Abbreviation for denier.NOTE 1—Other abbreviations may be found in specific examples or intrade usage.5. Summary of Practice5.1 The structure of a yarn is described by a group or seriesof groups of logically ordered symbols which describe thecharacteristics of a yarn. One group of symbols describescompletely a single yarn or a component of a more complexyarn. A plied yarn is described by two groups; for example, inthe single-to-ply notation, the first group describes the structureof the single yarn or yarns, and the second group describes thestructure of the plied yarn. The groups are connected withappropriate symbols. Other yarns are described similarly.5.2 Two orders of notation are presented for direct yarnnumbering systems, single-to-ply and ply-to-single. For indi-rect yarn numbering systems, only the traditional single-to-plynotation is presented.NOTE 2—Alternative names for the single-to-ply and ply-to-singlenotation are single-to-fold and fold-to-single, used in ISO/TC 38 Docu-ment N362, and single-to-resultant and resultant-to-single. The resultant-to-single term is particularly applicable to the description of cabled yarnsand to single yarns that have been bulked or given added twist. See also7.3.2, 7.3.3, and Note 3.6. Significance and Use6.1 The two orders of notation are presented to satisfy twoseparate needs encountered in the textile industry and in textiletechnology. The single-to-ply notation meets the needs of yarnmanufacturers to describe a single yarn, or a plied or cabledyarn primarily in terms of its manufacturing specifications. Theply-to-single notation, based on the resultant yarn number,meets the needs of users of yarn who have relatively littleinterest in the linear density or twist of the single yarncomponent(s) but are interested mainly in the final product.The chief difference between the two notations is the order inwhich the information is presented. In this practice the samesymbols are used for both notations and retain their usualmathematical meanings.6.2 The single-to-ply notation is prescribed for yarns num-bered in both direct and indirect yarn numbering systems andconforms with current usage in large sections of the textileindustry. The ply-to-single notation is prescribed for yarnsnumbered in a direct yarn numbering system and its use isapproved by the ISO/TC 38 in Document N362. This latternotation has not been included previously in Practice D1244.The ply-to-single notation has not been recommended for usewith yarns numbered in indirect yarn numbering systemsbecause of possible confusion when symbols are used withdifferent meanings in different notations or used in conflictwith their established mathematical significance.6.3 At first glance, the recommended notation may appearrather involved, but in actuality it is a concise method fordescribing complex structures. For example, compare thefollowing description of a yarn: “A cabled yarn or cord with aresultant cotton count of 1.4 and 5 turns per inch of Z twistmade from 3 strands of plied yarn with 9 turns per inch of Stwist each plied from 5 strands of 24 cotton count yarn with 15turns per inch of Z twist and spun from 11⁄16 in. staple, gradedstrict low middling, and having a Micronaire reading of 4.3”with the description of the same yarn stated in Example 23,24 NecZ 15 tpi (cotton, 11⁄16 in., SLM, 4.3 MicronaireReading) /5S9tpi/3Z5tpi;R1.4c.c.(23)6.4 ASTM recommends (see Practice D861), the generaluse of the tex universal yarn numbering system.6.5 The designation of a numbering system, for example,cotton count, woolen run, and linen lea, does not restrict theyarn composition to the named fiber. See Example 5.6.6 The terms used to designate different yarn numberingsystems are frequently abbreviated. See 4.13 – 4.16.6.7 The various yarn numbering units (cotton count, tex,etc.) should be carefully distinguished from the property whichhas been designated as linear density. This last term covers theconcept of size or fineness. The distinction is comparable to theuse of the units, (litres or gallons), to express a property suchas the volume of an object.7. Designation of Single Yarns, Direct and Indirect YarnNumbering Systems7.1 Spun Yarns—To describe the structure of spun yarns,state (1) the yarn number and the numbering system used, (2)the direction of twist, and (3) the amount of twist. Express theamount of twist in turns per inch (tpi) or turns per metre (tpm).Show the yarn number observed when the yarn is twisted to theextent specified. When known and needed, indicate in paren-theses the type of fiber, the average linear density of the fibers,the length of the fibers, and other pertinent information withrespect to fiber characteristics. If the single yarn has been spunfrom two or more fiber types, note the nominal percentages ofeach fiber.D1244 − 98 (2011)2Examples:25 tex Z 15 tpi (cotton) (1)24 NecZ 15 tpi (cotton, 11⁄16 in., SLM, 4.3 MicronaireReading) (2)24 NecZ 15 tpi (rayon, 1.5 den., 19⁄16 in. staple) (3)35 NewZ 381 tpm (80 % wool, 58’s and 20 % dull acetate3 den., 3 in. staple) (4)20NweZ55tpi(wool) (5)See 13.1, Example 2a, for a simplified notation of Example2.7.2 The use of traditional and tex yarn numbers as recom-mended by ISO for use during stages 1, 2, and 3 of transitionto the tex system is shown in Examples 6, 7, and 8. Only onenumber has been shown in later examples of this recommendedpractice to avoid confusion in the illustrations (examples).Examples:30 Nec(20 tex) Z 15 tpi (spun rayon) (6)20 tex (30 c.c.) Z 15 tpi (spun rayon) (7)20 tex Z15 tpi (spun rayon) (8)7.3 Filament Single Yarns—Describe the yarn structure asdirected in 7.1 for spun yarns but insert a notation showing thenumber of filaments following the yarn number. Designate thisinformation with the letter f followed by the number ofcomponent filaments. Designate monofilaments as f1. Writefractional twists in decimal form. State the yarn numberobtained with the manufacturer’s twist.Examples:11 tex f40 S 2.5 tpi (nylon 2.75 dtex) (9)See 13.1, Example 9a for a simplified notation of Example 9.7.3.1 Filament Yarn with Zero Twist—Omit the symbols Sand Z and include the symbol t0.Examples:11 tex f40 t0 (nylon, 2.5 den.) (10)100 den. f34 t0 (polyester) (11)7.3.2 Filament Yarns with Increased Twist—When the origi-nal filament yarn is subsequently twisted, the yarn number inthe twisted condition (or resultant yarn number) may beappreciably different from the yarn number obtained withmanufacturer’s twist. In such cases, follow the completedescription by the resultant number preceded by the letter R.Place a semicolon before the letter R.Example:1 tex f40 Z50 tpi (rayon, 2.75 dtex); R 12.7 tex (12)7.3.2.1 If the yarn number of the original yarn is not knownor there is a need for only a resultant yarn number, state theresultant number of the yarn preceded by the letter R andinclude at the end information about the original yarn if it isavailable.Example:R 12.7 tex f40 Z 50 tpi (rayon); 11 tex (13)7.3.3 Bulked Filament Yarns—For yarns the linear densityof which has been increased by a bulking or texturizingoperation, indicate the original yarn number in the initialdesignation. Give the yarn number after bulking preceeded bythe letter B. Place a semicolon before the B.Example:70 den. f34 t0 (nylon, 2.07 den.); B80 den. (14)7.3.3.1 Where the degree of bulking is not known or onlythe bulked yarn number is needed, state the final or bulked yarnnumber preceded by the letter B and include at the endinformation about the original yarn if it is available.Example:B80 den. f34 t0 (nylon, 2.07 den.); 70 den. (15)NOTE 3—Paragraphs 7.3.2.1, 7.3.3.1, and Examples 13 and 15 arepresented in this place for convenience. They do not represent the use ofthe single-to-ply notation but are an adaptation to a special single yarn ofthe notation based on resultant yarn number (ply-to-single notation),presented more fully in Sections 11 and 12. In these special yarns, thelinear density of the single yarn has been increased by the insertion ofadditional twist or by bulking, instead of by a plying operation. See Note2.8. Designation of Plied Yarns, Single-to-Ply Notation,Direct and Indirect Yarn Numbering Systems8.1 Use two groups of data to describe the yarn structure.Describe the single yarn components in the first group asdirected in 7.1 or 7.3. In the second group, describe the plyyarn, stating (1) the number of single yarn components in theplied yarn, (2) the direction of plying twist, and (3) the amountof plying twist. State the resultant yarn number, if required, asadditional information following the second group, but sepa-rate it from the second group with a semicolon. Report theexperimentally determined yarn number only, not a calculatednumber.8.2 Plied Yarns Having Identical Components—Provide theinformation as directed in 8.1. Connect the first and secondgroups with a multiplication sign (×) for yarn numbers in directyarn numbering systems and with a solidus (/) for yarnnumbers in indirect yarn numbering systems.Example:25texZ15tpi(cotton)×3S7tpi;R83tex (16)24 NecZ15tpi(cotton)/5S9tpi;R4.4Nec(17)1650 den. Z 12 tpi (rayon) × 3 S10 tpi (18)35 NewZ9tpi(58’swool)/3S4tpi (19)See 13.1, Examples 16a and 17a, for simplified notations ofExamples 16 and 17.8.3 Plied Yarns Having Dissimilar Components—Write thedesignation of the single yarns in sequence connected with oneor more plus signs ( + ). Enclose the group in braces and omitthe multiplication sign and the solidus.Example:{24 NecZ15 tpi (cotton) + 10 c.c. Z 23 tpi (cotton)} S 8 tpi;R7Nec(20){11texf40Z50tpi(nylon)+12texf40S3tpi(acetate)}S 12 tpi; R 24.0 tex (21)See 13.1, Example 20a, for a simplified notation of Example20.9. Designation of Cabled Yarns or Cords, Single-to-PlyNotation, Direct and Indirect Yarn NumberingSystems9.1 Use three groups of data to designate the yarn structure,the first two of which describe the plied yarn components asdirected in Section 8. In