# ASTM D1060-10

Designation: D1060 − 10Standard Practice forCore Sampling of Raw Wool in Packages for Determinationof Percentage of Clean Wool Fiber Present1This standard is issued under the fixed designation D1060; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year oforiginal adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. Asuperscript epsilon (´) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.1. Scope1.1 This practice for sampling covers a procedure forobtaining samples from lots of grease, pulled, or scoured woolor related animal fibers in bales or bags for the determinationof the clean wool fiber present by a procedure similar to thatdescribed in Test Method D584.1.2 This practice provides a description of suitable coresampling equipment, the sampling procedure, and the methodfor determining the number of packages to be bored and thenumber of cores to be taken from each sampled package.1.3 Reliable estimates are given for the standard deviationof the percentage clean wool fiber present between packagesand within packages for lots of many types of raw wool.1.4 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regardedas standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematicalconversions to SI units that are provided for information onlyand are not considered standard.1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of thesafety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is theresponsibility of the user of this standard to establish appro-priate safety and health practices and determine the applica-bility of regulatory limitations prior to use.2. Referenced Documents2.1 ASTM Standards:2D123 Terminology Relating to TextilesD584 Test Method for Wool Content of Raw Wool—Laboratory ScaleE105 Practice for Probability Sampling of MaterialsE122 Practice for Calculating Sample Size to Estimate, WithSpecified Precision, the Average for a Characteristic of aLot or ProcessD4845 Terminology Relating to Wool3. Terminology3.1 For all terminology relating to D13.13, Wool and WoolFelt, refer to Terminology D4845.3.1.1 The following terms are relevant to this standard:clean wool fiber present, core and raw wool.3.2 For definitions of other textile terms used in thispractice, refer to Terminology D123.4. Summary of Practices4.1 The lot is core sampled in accordance with one of aseries of equivalent schedules based on estimates of variabilityof the percentage clean wool fiber present and on the requiredlevel of precision. A set of packages of wool is taken as a lotsample. From each package in the lot sample, a fixed numberof cores of wool is drawn to be used as a laboratory sample.Guidance in the selection of the most economical of theequivalent schedules is provided.5. Significance and Use5.1 Core sampling is widely accepted, when applicable, forobtaining a laboratory sample representative of the clean woolfiber present in a lot of packaged raw wool.5.2 If the wool is so loosely packed that a core cannot becut, or if it is so highly compressed that the sampling toolcannot readily penetrate into the package to the required depthand in the required direction, core sampling is not applicable.The density of wool in most types of commercial packages issuitable for sampling by this method.5.3 The procedure described in this practice is adapted tothe application of statistical methods for estimating the size ofsample required to achieve a required level of sample precisionat minimum cost.NOTE 1—The basic sampling equipment, operating procedure, andstatistical approach used in this practice have been adapted for samplinglots of wool for the determination of other properties that are not affectedby boring, such as average fiber diameter, and for sampling lots of otherbulk fibers in packages.1This practice is under the juristiction ofASTM Committee D13 on Textiles andis the direct responsibility of Subcommittee D13.13 on Wool and Felt.Current edition approved June 1, 2010. Published June 2010. Originallyapproved in 1949 . Last previous edition approved in 2005 as D1060 – 96 (2005).DOI: 10.1520/D1060-10.2For referenced ASTM standards, visit the ASTM website, www.astm.org, orcontact ASTM Customer Service at service@astm.org. For Annual Book of ASTMStandards volume information, refer to the standard’s Document Summary page onthe ASTM website.Copyright © ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959. United States16. Apparatus6.1 Sampling Tool3—A tube equipped with a cutting edge,together with a drill, hammer, press, or similar device, andaccessories. The tube must be capable of penetrating therequired distance (see 7.2) into a package of wool and cuttinga core therefrom, which core must be retained substantiallyunchanged within the tube during its withdrawal from apackage.6.1.1 Fig. 1 illustrates the design of a recommended type ofrotatable small-diameter wool sampling tube.6.1.2 Sampling tubes in common use range from approxi-mately1⁄2 to 2 in. (13 to 50 mm) in diameter, and from 10 to40 in. (250 to 1000 mm) in length.6.1.3 Some types of sampling tubes are equipped withreceptacles at the rear of the tube.6.1.4 Drills of1⁄2 hp (375 w) rotating at 200 to 550 rpm (3.3to 10 rps), have been found to be satisfactory.6.1.5 A toothed cutting edge on a rotating tube of smalldiameter, instead of the smooth edge illustrated in Fig. 1,isacceptable provided that for any specific design it has beenshown that a bias is not introduced thereby. The absence of biasin samples obtained with a rotating 2-in. (50 mm) diametertube with a toothed cutting edge has been demonstrated.6.2 Sample Container—A container with closure of suchmaterial and so constructed that a sample stored therein willnot show a material change in its moisture content during theinterval between sampling and weighing the sample for test.7. Sampling Procedure7.1 Time of Sampling—Take the sample at or about the timethe lot is weighed.7.2 Depth of Penetration—Penetrate a bale of wool with thesampling tube to a depth such that substantially all parts of thepackage can be reached. Maintain the same depth of penetra-tion for each core taken from a given lot.7.3 Location of Borings:7.3.1 Consider a package as composed of eight sectionsapproximately equal in volume, defined by top or bottom, frontor back, left or right.7.3.2 Alternate the location of boring in such a fashion thatthe total composite sample will consist of approximately thesame number of cores from each section of the packages.7.3.3 If the packages have been compressed in a balingpress, enter a package through a compression surface and in adirection normal to that surface.7.4 Whenever there is danger that loose sand or othermaterial may drop out of the tube during or after boring, soposition the package that the direction of boring will behorizontal.3The sole source of supply of the apparatus known to the committee at this timeis Yocom-McColl Testing Laboratories, Inc., 540 Elk Place, Denver, CO 80216. Ifyou are aware of alternative suppliers, please provide this information to ASTMHeadquarters. Your comments will receive careful consideration at a meeting of theresponsible technical committee,1which you may attend.(Metric equivalents may be calculated by multiplying inches by 25.4 to obtain equivalent dimensions in millimetres.)FIG. 1 Small Diameter Wool Sampling Tool (United States Customs Service)D1060 − 1027.5 Just before entering a sampling tube into a package ofwool, cut the covering in such a way that none of the coveringmaterial fibers become mixed with the core or with the wool inthe package.7.6 Immediately upon withdrawal of the tube after boring,extrude the core directly into the sample container or theintermediate receptacle (6.1.3) without loss of material orunnecessary exposure to atmospheric conditions that mayresult in a change in the moisture content of the core.8. Size of Sample48.1 Variance of Sample Mean—If a sample consists of kcores from each of n packages from a lot of N packages of rawwool, and the n × k cores are composited into a single sampleon which m tests for percent clean wool fiber present are made,then the variance of the mean of the observations is given usingEq 1 (Notes 2 and 3):σx25σb2n3N 2 nN1σw2n 3 k1σt2m(1)5 σs21σt2mwhere:σx2= variance of the mean of the m observations,σb2= variance for percent clean wool fiber present betweenpackages within the lot,σw2= average variance for percent clean wool fiber presentof cores within packages of the lot,σt2= variance of observations on a homogeneous sample,σs2= variance for percent clean wool fiber present for thesample, as defined by Eq 1,n = number of packages selected at random from the lotfrom which cores are taken,N = number of packages in the lot,k = number of cores taken from each of the n packages,andm = number of observations made on the compositesample.NOTE 2—Uniform mass of packages and of cores are assumed. If thedeparture from uniformity is such that a material error would beintroduced by this assumption, proportional compositing must be adheredto.NOTE 3—The factor (N-n)/N is the correction for sampling from a finitepopulation. A corresponding correction is generally not necessary forcores and tests.8.2 Number of Cores—Unless otherwise agreed upon, aswhen specified in an applicable material specification, take anumber of cores such that σs2will be 0.2603.NOTE 4—0.2603 is the value calculated from (1.0/1.960)2where:1.0 = allowable variation of the percent clean wool fiber present ofthe composite sample, and1.960 = value of Student’s t for infinite degrees of freedom, two-sidedlimits, and a 95 % probability level.8.2.1 Reliable Estimates of Variances Available—When re-liable estimates of σb2and σw2are available, determine therequired number of packages based on a specific number ofcores per package using Eq 2 or Table 1:n 5 N ~sw21ksb2!/@0.2603 kN1ksb2# (2)where:n = number of packages to be selected from the lot forcoring (rounded upward to a whole number),N =k = number of cores to be taken from each selectedpackage (Note 5),sw= reliable estimate of the standard deviation forpercent clean wool fiber present of cores withinpackages of a lot of similar packaged raw wool(Note 6),sb= reliable estimate of the standard deviation forpercent clean wool fiber present between packageswithin a lot of similar packaged raw wool (Note 6),and0.2603 = value defined in Note 4.NOTE 5—Any convenient value of k may be used, but the value of kcalculated using Eq 3 and rounding to the nearest whole number will givethe most economical sample:k 5 ~sw23 B/sb23 C!12 (3)where:B = average cost of selecting and positioning a package for coring,andC = average cost of taking and handling a core, and the other terms aredefined in the legend for Eq 2.NOTE 6—Estimates of the variances are best based on data obtained ininvestigations using analysis of variance techniques for lots of similarpackaged raw wool. The estimates listed in Table A1.1 were so obtained.Estimates may also be based on records in the user’s laboratory if the planfor sampling and testing described in STP 1145has been followed. Fortesting that does not involve a dispute between the purchaser and thesupplier, variances may be estimated as specified in Practice E122.8.2.2 No Reliable Estimates of Variances Available—Whenno reliable estimates of σb2and σw2are available, determine therequired number of packages based on a specific number ofcores per package using Eq 2 or Table 1 and sw= sb= 5.0percentage points. These estimates of variability are somewhatlarger than the variability usually found in practice and willusually require a larger number of cores than when reliableestimates of variability are available.9. Sampling Schedules9.1 For convenience, Table 1 gives the values of n calcu-lated by Eq 2 for selected pairs of values of swand sband forselected lot sizes, N, and numbers of cores per package, k, foran allowable variation of 61.0 % clean wool fiber present at aprobability level of 95 %.10. Keywords10.1 sampling; wool content4For background information, see the paper by Louis Tanner and W. EdwardsDeming, “Some Problems in the Sampling of Bulk Materials,” Proceedings,ASTM,Vol 49, 1949, p. 1181 and ASTM Practice E105.5Symposium on Bulk Sampling, ASTM STP 114, ASTM, 1952.D1060 − 103TABLE 1 Values of n for an Allowable Variation of± 1.0 % Clean Wool Fiber Present (0.86 % Wool Base) at a Probability Level of 95 %A,for Selected Values of sw, sb, and kswsbNumber ofCores perSampledPackage, kNumber of Packages in Lot, N25 50 75 100 150 200 300 500 750 1000Number of Packages to Be Sampled, n1.0 1.0 1 788 88888885 101 12 121212131313131.0 2.0 1 21517 71818191919195 151922 232425262727281.0 3.0 1 72327 9323335363735 182732 353943444748491.0 4.0 1 93036 414750555961625 203240 65459657174761.0 .0 1 13544 516168768489925 1 1 1212 131313131313131. .5 1 31516 61717171718185 20 151920 212223232424241. .5 1 72325 72930313232325 30 192630 33363739414241. .5 1 202935 84346495153545 40 13239 445054596365671. .5 1 2 443 95763697579815 0 23646 546471808893962.0 1. 1 171819 191919192020202 01 1 21212121212122.0 1.5 1 182122 232324242424242 31415 161616161717172.0 2.0 1 202426 272829303031312 151820 02122222323232.0 2.5 1 21273 323436373839392 172225 262829303131312.0 3.0 1 21303 384143454748492 182529 23537384041412.0 3.5 1 22333 434851545859602 192934 384245485152532.0 4.0 1 233543 48555964697272 03239 35053586264662.0 4.5 1 233746 536268748185872 13442 495762687478802.0 5.0 1 243949 576876859499122 23646 36471798892952.5 1.0 1 252627 272828282828282 141516 161616161616162.5 1.5 1 252830 313132323333332 161819 202020212121212.5 2.0 1 253133 353637383939392 17212324 2526272727272.5 2.5 1 253337 39424345464742 192528 032 343535362.5 3.0 1 253541 444850535557572 02832 353840424445462.5 3.5 1 253744 495558626567682 13137 14548525456572.5 4.0 1 25394 536166717780812 23341 465357616668702.5 4.5 1 254050 586774818993952 23645 16065727882842.5 5.0 1 254253 6274829110107102 33748 5666738290969923.0 1.0 1B36 37 37 38 38 38 39 39 392 192021 212121212122223.0 1.5 1B37 39 40 41 42 43 43 43 432 202324 242525262626263.0 2.0 1B39 42 44 46 47 48 49 49 502 212528 293031323232333.0 2.5 1B40 45 48 51 53 55 56 57 582 222832 343637394041413.0 3.0 1B41 48 52 57 59 63 65 67 672 223136 394345474950513.0 3.5 1B43 51 56 63 67 71 75 77 782 233440 444953565961623.0 4.0 1B44 53 60 69 74 80 86 89 912 233644 495661667173753.0 4.5 1B44 56 64 74 81 90 98 102 1052 243847 54636976838789D1060 − 104TABLE 1 ContinuedswsbNumber ofCores perSampledPackage, kNumber of Packages in Lot, N25 50 75 100 150 200 300 500 750 1000Number of Packages to Be Sampled, n3.0 5.0 1B45 58 67 80 89 99 110 116 1202 243950 587077869601043.5 1.0 1B48 49 50 50 50 51 51 51 512 242627 272727282828283 171919 192020202020204 41515 61616161616163.5 1.5 1B48 50 52 53 54 55 55 56 562 242829 303131323232323 192122 232424242425254 61819 192020202121213.5