# ASTM C167-15

Designation: C167 − 15Standard Test Methods forThickness and Density of Blanket or Batt ThermalInsulations1This standard is issued under the fixed designation C167; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year oforiginal adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. Asuperscript epsilon (´) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.This standard has been approved for use by agencies of the U.S. Department of Defense.1. Scope1.1 These test methods cover the determination of thicknessand density of flexible, felted, or woven thermal insulatingblankets, rolls, or batts composed of fibrous materials, with orwithout surface covering or reinforcement.1.2 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regardedas standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematicalconversions to SI units that are provided for information onlyand are not considered standard.1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of thesafety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is theresponsibility of the user of this standard to establish appro-priate safety and health practices and determine the applica-bility of regulatory limitations prior to use.2. Referenced Documents2.1 ASTM Standards:2C168 Terminology Relating to Thermal Insulation3. Terminology3.1 Definitions—Terminology C168 shall be considered asapplicable to the terms used in these test methods.3.2 Definitions of Terms Specific to This Standard:3.2.1 package—an individually wrapped group or bag ofbatts or a single roll of thermal insulation material.4. Significance and Use4.1 Proper measurements of thickness and density of blan-ket or batt insulations are essential for determining thermalinsulation properties. For a particular batt or blanket product,thickness and density are usually directly related to thermalinsulating value.4.2 These test methods are of significant value in manufac-turing quality control, to ensure that claimed insulation valuesof products are maintained.5. Apparatus5.1 Depth Gauge, of the type shown in Fig. 1. The disk shallbe fabricated of a suitable plastic material. The disk shall havea mass of 9.3 6 0.3 grams and shall exert a pressure of 0.4lbf/ft2(20 Pa). The disk shall be 3-in. 6 0.08-in. (76 mm 62mm) in diameter. The disk shall be perpendicular to the pin atall times and shall have a friction device or thumb grip tosecure the pin unless purposely moved. The pin shall be madeat a maximum1⁄8-in. (3 mm) diameter. The pin shall be ofsufficient length for the material to be measured.5.2 Steel rule, graduated in 0.05-in. or 1-mm intervals.5.3 Scales, of sufficient capacity and sensitivity to weigh thetest specimen to an accuracy of 60.5 %.6. Sampling6.1 A test sample shall consist of one representative roll orpackage of insulation.6.2 Sampling of Packages—For packages which contain 20or more batts, five batts shall be selected. For packages whichcontain less than 20 batts, either the three-batt or five-battselection technique may be used. Batts which are folded in halfshall count as two batts for purposes of choosing and employ-ing the selection method.6.2.1 Three-Batt Method—Select the center batt and thesecond batt in from each end of the package.6.2.2 Five-Batt Method—Divide the package sequentiallyinto five groups of batts as equal in number as possible. Selectthe first batt from each group. Be careful to select one and onlyone batt from the two end batts within the package.6.2.3 Cut batts which are longer than 48 in. to 48 6 0.25 in.(122 6 0.63 cm) in length.6.3 Sampling of Cut Rolls—Five batts shall be cut ofroll-width by 48 6 0.25 in. (122 6 0.63 cm) in length.1These test methods are under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee C16 onThermal Insulation and are the direct responsibility of Subcommittee C16.32 onMechanical Properties.Current edition approved Sept. 1, 2015. Published October 2015. Originallyapproved in 1941. Last previous edition approved in 2009 as C167 – 09. DOI:10.1520/C0167-15.2For referenced ASTM standards, visit the ASTM website, www.astm.org, orcontact ASTM Customer Service at service@astm.org. For Annual Book of ASTMStandards volume information, refer to the standard’s Document Summary page onthe ASTM website.Copyright © ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959. United States16.3.1 Cut one batt from the center of the roll, two batts fromthe ends of the roll, and the fourth and fifth from the quarterpoints along the length. See Fig. 2.6.3.2 For blankets wider than 24 in., cut each of the fivebatts 24 6 0.25 in. (61 6 0.63 cm) wide by 48 6 0.25 in. (1226 0.63 cm) long.6.4 Sampling for Full Roll Method—This method can beused in place of 6.3 when the roll is wider than 24 in. (61 cm)or longer than 50 ft (16.4 m). Prior to unrolling the material,weigh the entire roll to the nearest 0.25 pound (0.11 kg). Twomethods may be used to obtain the full roll weight. The firstmethod removes the insulation product from the packagingprior to weighing. The material will expand and may unrollslightly, care must be taken to ensure that the full roll isweighed accurately. The second method weighs the packagedinsulation product, then weighs the packaging material only.The packaging material weight is subtracted from packagedproduct weight to obtain net material weight.7. Procedure7.1 Expansion of Packages and Cut Roll—Hold the first battvertically off the floor by grasping it with both hands on itslong dimension so that the lower edge is 18 6 1 in. (460 6 25mm) above a solid horizontal surface. Release the batt,allowing it to strike the surface. Repeat the above for a secondtime. Next, holding the batt by the other long edge, drop twiceas above. Place the specimen on the flat, hard surface. Repeatthe above for the remaining four specimens. Allow specimensto reach equilibrium by waiting at least 5 min before makingthickness measurements within 1 in. (25 mm) in any directionof five points as indicated in Fig. 3.NOTE 1—If 23-in. (580-mm) wide samples are tested, use a quarter orhalf of that dimension to establish the test points.NOTE 2—Some materials may require4hormore to reach equilibrium.7.2 Expansion of Full Roll—Unroll the insulation. Flip thetest roll over its entire length so the bottom surface is now onFIG. 1 Depth Gauge for Thickness MeasurementsFIG. 2 Sampling of Cut RollsC167 − 152top. Next grasp one end and pull the material over itself untilthe original surface is again facing up. If there is insufficientroom to pull the material over itself (less than twice theunrolled length), the material may be repositioned by slidingthe partially pulled roll to the end of the testing space, andcontinue to pull the material over itself.NOTE 3—Use 7.1 if sampling procedure in 6.3 is used.7.3 Measurement of Packages and Cut Roll—Insert the pinof the thickness gauge vertically into the material at the firstmeasuring point with a twisting motion until it contacts thehard surface beneath. Lower the disk until it lightly anduniformly contacts the specimen.An alternative procedure is touse a disk whose mass exerts a specified pressure of at least 0.4lbf/ft2(20 Pa) on the specimen. With the gauge disk lockedagainst the pin, lift the gauge unit from the test specimen.While holding the gauge in locked position, place the diskagainst the zero end of the rule with the pin projecting alongthe calibrated surface of the rule. Observe and record thereading at the pointed end of the pin to the nearest 0.05 in. (1mm). Repeat the above for each of the remaining measuringpoints as shown in Fig. 3.7.4 Measurement of Full Roll—Record the roll length to thenearest 1 in. (2.54) cm. Take measurements on each side of theroll. If the roll has been cut in half, take a third roll lengthmeasurement along the midpoint of the roll width. Record rollwidth at three locations to the nearest 0.125 in. (0.32 cm).Width measurements will be taken 10 ft (3.05 m) from eachend, and in the middle of the roll length. Using a pin gauge,record thickness to the nearest 0.05 in. (1 mm) as shown in Fig.4. Refer to Section 7.3 for use of pin gauge. Two 15 ft (4.57 m)long sections shall be measured. These sections shall be 10(3.05 m) in from each end. A total of twenty thicknessmeasurements will be taken for each roll.NOTE 4—Use 7.4 if sampling procedure in 6.4 is used.8. Calculation8.1 Thickness—Take the average of the thickness measure-ments made in accordance with Section 7 as the thickness ofthe specimen.FIG. 3 Thickness Measurement LocationsC167 − 1538.2 Area Weight and Density—Calculate the weight per unitarea and the density by one of the following equations:Weight per unit area as received, lb/ft2~or kg/m2! 5 w1/~L 3 W! (1)Weight per unit area without facings, lb/ft2~or kg/m2!5w2/~L 3 W!Density of insulation ~without facings!, lb/ft3~or kg/m3!5w2/~L 3 W 3 T!Density of insulation ~without facings! at specified thickness, lb/ft3~or kg/m3! 5 ~w2!/~L 3 W 3specified thickness!where:w1= total weight of test specimen, lb (orkg),w2= weight of test specimen withoutfacings, lb (or kg),L = length of test specimen, ft (or m),W = width of test specimen, ft (or m),T = thickness of test specimen, convertedfrom in. to ft (or mm to m), andspecified thickness = ordered thickness, ft (or m).9. Report9.1 Report the following information:9.1.1 The pressure exerted on the test specimens duringthickness measurements, if the gauge used is of the type thatexerts a pressure,9.1.2 Average, maximum, and minimum of the measuredvalues of thickness of the test specimen, expressed in inches(or millimetres),9.1.3 Weight per unit area as received, expressed in poundsper square foot (or kilograms per square metre),9.1.4 Density of insulation, expressed in pounds per cubicfoot (or kilograms per cubic metre), and9.1.5 Age of material when tested, if known, and descrip-tion of package (roll, bag, etc.).10. Precision and Bias310.1 The precision and bias of these test methods depend onthe ability to read and interpolate the steel rule and balance andto judge when surface contact occurs between the depth gaugedisk and the test specimen.10.2 Thickness of Packages—An interlaboratory compari-son of six participating laboratories was conducted in 1991 onfibrous glass insulation. This test program used four commonbatt insulations and tested all batts within each package. Awithin-laboratory repeatability for thickness measurements of7 % was obtained, which also includes product and packagingvariability. Individual batt measurements were initially ex-pressed as percentages of the average measurement of therespective package average. These percentages were thennormalized to the average thickness versus piece locationdistribution for the respective product as measured by the sixlaboratories. Twice the sample standard deviation of thesevalues yielded the repeatability. The 95 % repeatability limit,2.8 (sr), was 9 %.10.3 The interlaboratory comparison noted in 10.2 yieldedvalues for bias of the batt sampling techniques specified in 6.2of not greater than 1 % for any of the products tested. Bias wasmeasured in terms of the percent deviation of the averagethickness of the sampled batts from the package average.10.4 Imprecision of the batt sampling techniques was deter-mined to be 2.4 % for the five-batt method and 3.6 % for thethree-batt method.NOTE 5—Imprecision in this subsection refers to twice the samplestandard deviation of the thicknesses predicted by the sampling techniqueexpressed as a percentage of the average measured thickness of all battswithin the package.10.5 Thickness of Cut Roll—An interlaboratory study of thecut roll sampling technique was run in 1995 on fibrous glassinsulation. Five laboratories each tested three samples of two3Supporting data have been filed at ASTM International Headquarters and maybe obtained by requesting Research Report RR: C16 – 1016.FIG. 4 Thickness Measurement Locations – Full RollC167 − 154material thicknesses. The materials included an R-11 roll, 32in. (9.75 m) long by 15 in. (38.1 cm) wide, and an R-19 roll,39 ft (11.89 m) long by 15 in. (38.1 cm) wide. These materialsrepresent the range of product packaged as rolls. The analyzeddata consisted of a package average thickness, calculated from25 sampling points per package, five locations each from fivebatts per each roll.10.5.1 Precision Results:R-11 R-1995 % repeatability limit (within laboratory) 25.9 % 6.7 %95 % reproducibility limit (between laboratories) 38.7 % 11.4 %10.5.2 Bias—There is not an accepted reference valueavailable, and thickness bias cannot be determined.10.6 Density of Cut Roll—Data from the interlaboratorystudy of the cut roll sampling technique was used to investigatethe precision and bias of density calculations. Density isdefined as the mass per unit volume, and is dependent uponboth the process of weighing the sample and measuring its sizein three dimensions.10.6.1 Precision Results:R-11 R-1995 % repeatability limit (within laboratory) 7.8 % 17.9 %95 % reproducibility limit (between laboratories) 14.7 % 40.8 %10.6.2 Bias—There is not an accepted reference valueavailable, and density bias cannot be determined.10.7 Thickness of Full Roll—An interlaboratory study of thefull roll sampling technique was also run in 1995 on fibrousglass insulation. Four laboratories each tested three samples oftwo material thicknesses. The materials included an R-10 roll,100 ft (30.48 m) long by 72 in. (182.88 cm) wide, and an R-19roll, 50 ft (15.24 m) long by 60 in. (152.4 cm) wide. Thesematerials represent the range of product packaged as widerrolls. The analyzed data consisted of a package averagethickness, calculated from 20 sampling points per package, tenlocations each from two 15 ft (4.57 m) wide areas located 10ft (3.05 m) from each package end.10.7.1 Precision Results:R-10 R-1995 % repeatability limit (within laboratory) 6.2 % 5.9 %95 % reproducibility limit (between laboratories) 13.3 % 7.3 %10.7.2 Bias—There is not an accepted reference valueavailable, and thickness bias cannot be determined. The inter-laboratory study revealed a thickness deviation from cut rollinsulation. The deviations are:R-10 -0.152 in. (-3.86 mm)R-19 -0.254 in. (-6.45 mm)10.8 Density of Full Roll—Data from the interlaboratorystudy of the full roll sampling technique was used to investi-gate the precision and bias of density calculations. Density isdefined as the mass per unit volume, and is dependent uponboth the process of weighing the sample and measuring its sizein three dimensions.10.8.1 Precision Results:R-10 R-1995 % repeatability limit (within laboratory) 8.7 % 6.5 %95 % reproducibility limit (between laboratories) 13.3 % 7.2 %10.8.2 Bias—There is not an accepted reference valueavailable, and density bias cannot be determined.10.9 The precision and bias for materials other than fibrousglass have not been determined.11. Keywords11.1 density-thermal insulating materials; thermal