# ASTM C567C567M-14

Designation: C567/C567M − 14Standard Test Method forDetermining Density of Structural Lightweight Concrete1This standard is issued under the fixed designation C567/C567M; the number immediately following the designation indicates the yearof original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval.A superscript epsilon (´) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.This standard has been approved for use by agencies of the U.S. Department of Defense.1. Scope*1.1 This test method provides procedures to determine theoven-dry and equilibrium densities of structural lightweightconcrete.1.2 The values stated in either SI units or inch-pound unitsare to be regarded separately as standard. The values stated ineach system may not be exact equivalents; therefore, eachsystem shall be used independently of the other. Combiningvalues from the two systems may result in non-conformancewith the standard. Some values have only SI units because theinch-pound equivalents are not used in practice.1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of thesafety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is theresponsibility of the user of this standard to establish appro-priate safety and health practices and determine the applica-bility of regulatory limitations prior to use.2. Referenced Documents2.1 ASTM Standards:2C31/C31M Practice for Making and Curing Concrete TestSpecimens in the FieldC88 Test Method for Soundness of Aggregates by Use ofSodium Sulfate or Magnesium SulfateC125 Terminology Relating to Concrete and Concrete Ag-gregatesC138/C138M Test Method for Density (Unit Weight), Yield,and Air Content (Gravimetric) of ConcreteC172 Practice for Sampling Freshly Mixed ConcreteC192/C192M Practice for Making and Curing Concrete TestSpecimens in the LaboratoryC470/C470M Specification for Molds for Forming ConcreteTest Cylinders VerticallyC670 Practice for Preparing Precision and Bias Statementsfor Test Methods for Construction MaterialsE104 Practice for Maintaining Constant Relative Humidityby Means of Aqueous Solutions3. Terminology3.1 Terminology used in this test method is defined inTerminology C125.3.2 Definitions of Terms Specific to This Standard:3.2.1 equilibrium density, n—the density as determined in8.2 reached by structural lightweight concrete after exposure torelative humidity of 50 6 5 % and a temperature of 23 6 2°C[73.5 6 3.5 °F] for a period of time sufficient to reach constantmass.3.2.2 oven-dry density—the density as determined in 8.3reached by structural lightweight concrete after being placed ina drying oven at 110 6 5 °C [230 6 9 °F] for a period of timesufficient to reach constant mass.4. Summary of Test Method4.1 This test method provides procedures for determiningthe oven-dry and equilibrium densities of structural lightweightconcrete, by calculation or measurement. The calculated oven-dry density is determined from batch quantities and volume ofa given batch of concrete. The calculated equilibrium density isapproximated by adding a fixed quantity to the oven-drydensity. Measured densities are obtained from determinationsof the mass of cylindrical specimens after specified treatments.5. Significance and Use5.1 The measured or calculated equilibrium density ofstructural lightweight concrete determines whether specifieddensity requirements have been met. Unless otherwisespecified, determine equilibrium density by calculation usingthe procedures in 9.2.5.2 Test Method C138/C138M shall be used to determinethe density of freshly mixed lightweight concrete for compli-ance with concrete placement specifications.NOTE 1—The fresh density of lightweight aggregate concrete is afunction of mixture proportions, air content, water demand, and thespecific density and moisture content of the lightweight aggregate.Decrease in density of a specific lightweight concrete is due to moisture1This test method is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee C09 onConcrete and Concrete Aggregatesand is the direct responsibility of SubcommitteeC09.21 on Lightweight Aggregates and Concrete.Current edition approved April 1, 2014. Published May 2014. Originallyapproved in 1965. Last previous edition approved in 2011 as C567–11. DOI:10.1520/C0567_C0567M-14.2For referenced ASTM standards, visit the ASTM website, www.astm.org, orcontact ASTM Customer Service at service@astm.org. For Annual Book of ASTMStandards volume information, refer to the standard’s Document Summary page onthe ASTM website.*A Summary of Changes section appears at the end of this standardCopyright © ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959. United States1loss that, in turn, is a function of aggregate moisture content, ambientconditions, and the ratio of the surface area to the volume of the concretemember. For most structural lightweight concretes, equilibrium density isapproached at about 90 days. For most high-strength lightweightconcretes, equilibrium density is approached at about 180 days. Extensivetests demonstrate that despite variations in the initial moisture content oflightweight aggregate, the equilibrium density will be approximately 50kg/m3[3.0 lb/ft3] greater than the oven-dry density.6. Apparatus6.1 Tamping Rod, Mallet, Measure, Balance, and Molds—These shall conform to the requirements of Test MethodC138/C138M and Specification C470/C470M.6.1.1 Measure—A 14-L [0.5-ft3] measure shall be the stan-dard (see Note 3).6.2 Controlled Humidity Enclosure—A room controlled at50 6 5 % relative humidity and 23 6 2 °C [73.5 6 3 °F] or asmall chamber meeting the requirements of Practice E104.6.3 Drying Oven—An oven of appropriate size capable ofmaintaining a uniform temperature of 1106 5 °C [230 6 9 °F],and an average evaporation rate of at least 25 g/h. Determineevaporation rate in accordance with Test Method C88.7. Sampling, and Making, and Curing Test Specimens7.1 Sampling—Sample field-mixed concrete in accordancewith Practice C172.7.2 Specimens for Determining Equilibrium Density andOven-dry Density—Determine the equilibrium density andoven-dry density on 150 by 300-mm [6 by 12-in.] concretecylinders.7.2.1 Make test cylinders in accordance with Practice C192/C192M or C31/C31M, whichever is applicable. Make threecylinders for equilibrium density measurements, and makethree cylinders for oven-dry density measurements.7.3 Curing Specimens:7.3.1 Unless otherwise specified, test cylinders used for thedetermination of equilibrium density shall be cured in accor-dance with Practice C192/C192M or the standard curingprocedure in Practice C31/C31M.NOTE 2—Cylinders may be stripped after 24 h and wrapped securelywith a plastic sheet or bag to prevent loss of moisture, or may remain incovered molds until the time of test.7.3.2 Unless otherwise specified, for the first 24 h or untilthe time of test, store the test cylinders used for the determi-nation of oven-dry density under conditions that maintain atemperature adjacent to the cylinders in the range from 16 to 27°C [60 to 80 °F] and that prevent loss of moisture from thecylinders.8. Procedure8.1 Measurement of Freshly Mixed Concrete Density—Determine the density of the freshly mixed concrete in accor-dance with Test Method C138/C138M.NOTE 3—Numerous observations indicate that the same compactiveeffort used on smaller concrete specimens will cause the fresh densities tobe higher. The fresh density as determined from measurements on 150 by300-mm [6 by 12-in.] cylinders of lightweight concrete consolidated byrodding, in accordance with Practice C192/C192M or Practice C31/C31Mwill average 40 kg/m3[2.5 lb/ft3] higher than the fresh density asmeasured using a 14-L [0.5-ft3] measure in accordance with Test MethodC138/C138M.8.2 Measurement of Equilibrium Density—To measure theequilibrium density, remove the cylinders from their curingcondition on the seventh day after molding and immerse inwater at 23 6 2 °C [73.5 6 3.5 °F] for 24 h. Measure theapparent mass of the cylinders while suspended and completelysubmerged in water and record as “C,” the mass of thesuspended-immersed cylinder. Remove from the water andallow to drain for 1 min by placing the cylinder on a 9.5-mm[3⁄8-in.] or coarser sieve cloth. Remove visible water with adamp cloth, determine the mass and record as “B,” the mass ofthe saturated-surface-dry cylinder. Dry the cylinders with allsurfaces exposed, in a controlled humidity enclosure as de-scribed in 6.2 until the mass of the specimen changes not morethan 0.5 % (gain or loss) in successive determinations of mass28 days apart. Determine the mass of the dried cylinders andrecord as “A,” the mass of the dried cylinder. Calculate theequilibrium density of the concrete from Eq 1 and 2.Em~Density, kg/m3! 5 ~A 3997!/~B 2 C! (1)Em~Density, @lb/ft3#! 5 ~A 362.3!/~B 2 C!) (2)where:Em= measured equilibrium density, kg/m3[lb/ft3],A = mass of cylinder as dried, kg [lb],B = mass of saturated surface-dry cylinder, kg [lb], andC = apparent mass of suspended-immersed cylinder, kg[lb].8.3 Measurement of Oven-Dry Density—After 24 h but notto exceed 32 h, remove the cylinders from the mold (see Note4). Measure the apparent mass of the cylinders while sus-pended and completely submerged in water and record as “G”the mass of the suspended-immersed cylinders. Remove fromthe water and allow to drain for 1 min by placing the cylinderson a 9.5-mm [3⁄8-in.] or coarser sieve cloth. Remove visiblewater with a damp cloth, determine the mass and record as “F,”the mass of the saturated surface-dry cylinders. Place thecylinders in the drying oven at 110 6 5 °C [230 6 9 °F] for 72h. Allow cylinders to cool for at least thirty minutes but notmore than 1 hour and determine the mass. Repeat oven-drying,cooling, and determination of mass at 24-h intervals until thechange in mass is not more than 0.5 %. Record this mass as“D”, the mass of the oven-dried cylinder. Determine theoven-dry density from Eq 3 and 4.Om~Density, kg/m3! 5 ~D 3997!/~F 2 G! (3)Om~Density, @lb/ft3#! 5 ~D 362.3!/~F 2 G!) (4)where:Om= measured oven-dry density, kg/m3[lb/ft3],D = mass of oven-dry cylinder, kg [lb],F = mass of saturated surface-dry cylinder, kg [lb], andG = apparent mass of suspended-immersed cylinder, kg[lb].NOTE 4—Determination of oven-dry density may be specified to beginC567/C567M − 142at an age other than 24-h.9. Calculation9.1 Calculation of Oven-Dry Density—Where mixturequantities, aggregate moisture content, and the volume of theconcrete batch are known, calculate an oven-dry density usingEq 5.Oc5 ~Mdf1Mdc11.2 Mct!/V (5)where:Oc= calculated oven-dry density, kg/m3[lb/ft3],Mdf= mass of dry fine aggregate in batch, kg [lb],Mdc= mass of dry coarse aggregate in batch, kg [lb],Mct= mass of cement in batch, kg [lb],1.2 = factor to approximate the mass of cement plus chemi-cally combined water, andV = volume of concrete produced by the batch m3[ft3].9.2 Calculation of Approximate Equilibrium Density—Using the oven-dry density determined in accordance with 8.3or 9.1, calculate the approximate equilibrium density from Eq6 and 7.Ec5 Oc150 kg/m3@3 lb/ft3# (6)orEc5 Om150 kg/m3@3 lb/ft3# (7)where:Ec= calculated equilibrium density (see Note 1).10. Report10.1 When oven-dry and equilibrium densities are deter-mined by measurements, the report shall include followinginformation:10.1.1 Fresh density, kg/m3[lb/ft3].10.1.2 Mass of suspended-immersed cylinder, kg [lb].10.1.3 Mass of saturated surface dry cylinder, kg [lb].10.1.4 Mass of cylinder after reaching equilibrium, kg [lb].10.1.5 Equilibrium density reported to nearest 10 kg/m3[0.5lb/ft3].10.1.6 Age at which equilibrium was reached, days.10.1.7 Mass of oven-dry cylinder, kg [lb].10.1.8 Oven-dry density rounded to the nearest 10 kg/m3[0.5 lb/ft3].10.2 When oven-dry and approximate equilibrium densitiesare determined by calculation, report the following informa-tion:10.2.1 Fresh density, kg/m3[lb/ft3].10.2.2 Mass of cement and dry aggregates, batched, kg [lb].10.2.3 Volume of concrete produced from the batch, m3[ft3].10.2.4 Calculated oven-dry density, to the nearest 10 kg/m3[0.5 lb/ft3].10.2.5 Calculated approximate equilibrium density, to thenearest 10 kg/m3[0.5 lb/ft3].11. Precision and Bias11.1 Precision:11.1.1 The data used to develop the precision statementwere obtained using the inch-pound version of this TestMethod. The precision indices shown in SI units are exactconversions of the values in inch-pound units.11.1.2 Single-Operator Precision—The single-operatorstandard deviation of a single test determination for oven-drydensity has been found to be 21 kg/m3[1.3 pcf]. Therefore,results of two properly conducted tests by the same operator onthe same material are not expected to differ by more than 59kg/m3[3.7 pcf].3The single-operator standard deviation of asingle test determination for equilibrium density has beenfound to be 16 kg/m3[1.0 pcf]. Therefore, results of twoproperly conducted tests by the same operator on the samematerial are not expected to differ by more than 43 kg/m3[2.7pcf].311.1.3 Multilaboratory Precision—The multilaboratorystandard deviation of a single test determination for bothoven-dry and equilibrium density has been found to be 22kg/m3[1.4 pcf]. Therefore, results of two properly-conductedtests in different laboratories on the same material are notexpected to differ by more than 62 kg/m3[3.9 pcf].311.2 Bias—As there were no available standard referencematerials at the time of this study, bias cannot be determined.NOTE 5—The precision of this test method is based on an interlabora-tory study conducted in 2011. A total of eight laboratories participated inthis study, measuring both-oven dry and equilibrium density. Each testresult reported represents an individual determination, and all participantswere asked to report duplicate test results. The average oven-dry densitywas 1706 kg/m3[106.5 pcf], and the average equilibrium density was1808 kg/m3[112.9 pcf].412. Keywords12.1 equilibrium density; lightweight concrete; oven-drydensity3These numbers represent, respectively, the (1s) and (d2s) limits as describedin Practice C670.4Supporting data have been filed at ASTM International Headquarters and maybe obtained by requesting Research Report RR:C09-1044. ContactASTM CustomerService at service@astm.org.C567/C567M − 143SUMMARY OF CHANGESCommittee C09 has identified the location of selected changes to this test method since the last issue,C567–11, that may impact the use of this test method. (Approved April 1, 2014.)(1) Revision of Precision and Bias statements in Section 11.ASTM International takes no position respecting the validity of any patent rights asserted in connection with any item mentionedin this standard. Users of this standard are expressly advised that determination of the validity of any such patent rights, and the riskof infringement of such rights, are entirely their own responsibility.This standard is subject to revision at any time by