# ASTM C134-95 (Reapproved 2016)

Designation C134 − 95 Reapproved 2016Standard Test s forSize, Dimensional Measurements, and Bulk Density ofRefractory Brick and Insulating Firebrick1This standard is issued under the fixed designation C134; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year oforiginal adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. Asuperscript epsilon ´ indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.1. Scope1.1 These test s cover procedures for measuring size,dimensional measurement, bulk density, warpage, and square-ness of rectangular dense refractory brick and rectangularinsulating firebrick. More precise determination of bulk densityof refractory brick can be made by Test s C20. Stackheight is generally determined only for dense refractories.NOTE 1Test s C830 and Test C914 are also used todetermine bulk density of refractory brick, by different procedures.1.2 The test s appear in the following orderSectionsSize and Bulk Density 4 through 7Warpage of Refractory Brick 8 through 10Squareness of Refractory Brick 11 through 141.3 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regardedas standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematicalconversions to SI units that are provided for ination onlyand are not considered standard.1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of thesafety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is theresponsibility of the user of this standard to establish appro-priate safety and health practices and determine the applica-bility of regulatory limitations prior to use.2. Referenced Documents2.1 ASTM Standards2C20 Test s for Apparent Porosity, Water Absorption,Apparent Specific Gravity, and Bulk Density of BurnedRefractory Brick and Shapes by Boiling WaterC830 Test s for Apparent Porosity, LiquidAbsorption, Apparent Specific Gravity, and Bulk Densityof Refractory Shapes by Vacuum PressureC914 Test for Bulk Density and Volume of SolidRefractories by Wax Immersion3. Significance and Use3.1 Refractory brick are used as modular units in furnaceconstruction and should not deviate significantly from theintended configuration with respect to size, bulk density, flatsurfaces, and right angles. These test s are particularlysuited for use under field conditions and provide a means todetermine whether the brick meets the requirements considerednecessary to assure a satisfactory refractory construction.SIZE AND BULK DENSITY4. Apparatus4.1 Rule, steel, hook, 12 in. 305 mm in length, graduatedin 0.02-in. 0.5-mm divisions, for use in measuring individualbrick. The rule has a rigid hardened steel hook consisting of aright-angled piece on one end to fix the zero point of the scaleagainst one face of the brick. The hook is about1⁄4 in. 6 mmin width and extends about1⁄4 in. beyond the back face or,preferably, the edge of the rule.4.2 Rule, stiff steel, hook, 36 in. 914 mm in length,graduated from each end in 0.02-in. 0.5-mm divisions, for usein measuring stack height and the larger individual brick. The36-in. rule has the same design as the 12-in 305-mm rule.NOTE 2Check the hook rules periodically to determine that they havenot become worn or distorted in use. Other measuring equipment may beused, provided the results are at least as accurate as those obtained withthe hook rule.4.3 Weighing Scale, having a capacity of 20 lb 9 kg ormore and a sensitivity under load of at least 0.01 lb 4.5 g.5. Sampling5.1 A sample consists of ten brick selected at random.5.2 Preparation of SpecimensRemove any blisters or finsfrom the specimens by lightly rubbing them together. Omit thisstep in the case of insulating firebrick.6. Procedure6.1 Length and WidthMeasure the length and width ofeach of the ten specimens across the middle of each of the faces1These test s are under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee C08 onRefractories and are the direct responsibility of Subcommittee C08.03 on PhysicalProperties.Current edition approved June 1, 2016. Published June 2016. Originallyapproved in 1938. Last previous edition approved in 2010 as C134 – 95 2010.DOI 10.1520/C0134-95R16.2For referenced ASTM standards, visit the ASTM website, www.astm.org, orcontact ASTM Customer Service at serviceastm.org. For Annual Book of ASTMStandards volume ination, refer to the standard’s Document Summary page onthe ASTM website.Copyright © ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959. United States1of largest area to the nearest 0.02 in. 0.5 mm. Make andrecord the individual measurements of the two opposite facesof each specimen.6.2 ThicknessDetermine the thickness of insulating fire-brick and record in the same manner as the length and width,as indicated in 6.1. Make the thickness measurements at thecenters of the longer sides of the brick. Determine the thicknessof dense refractory brick in the same manner or, when requiredby specification, calculate the average thickness from the stackheight determined as in 6.3.6.3 Stack HeightStack the ten specimens vertically on aplane surface with their faces of largest area together to asmooth column, without regard to the position of any brandmarks on the specimens. Measure the height of the stack to thenearest 0.02 in. 0.5 mm from the plane surface to the top ofthe stack at the center of each side. Record the individualmeasurements of the four sides of the stack.6.4 WeightDry at 230°F 110°C, cool, and weigh each ofthe specimens to the nearest 0.01 lb 4.5 g, and record theweight.7. Calculation and Report7.1 SizeReport the individual measurements and the cal-culated average for the two individual measurements forlength, width, and thickness for each specimen.7.2 Stack Height and Average ThicknessReport the indi-vidual measurements and the calculated stack height as theaverage of the individual measurements of the four sides of thestack if required. Report “average thickness by stack height” asthe average stack height divided by ten. For bricks over 31⁄2 in.89 mm in thickness, report the average thickness of theindividual specimens.7.3 Bulk DensityCalculate and report the bulk density foreach specimen, using Eq 1 or Eq 2 as appropriate and theaverage dimensions obtained in accordance with 7.1 and theweight obtained in accordance with 6.4.lb/ft3B 5 d 3 1728 / l 3 w 3 t 1orB 5 d/l 3w 3t 2whereB bulk density, lb/ft3g/cc,d dry weight, lb g,l length, in. mm,w width, in. mm, andt thickness, in. mm.WARPAGE OF REFRACTORY BRICK8. Apparatus8.1 Steel Straightedge, stiff, having sufficient length to spanthe diagonal of the largest shape to be measured, and graduatedin 0.02-in. 0.5-mm divisions.8.2 Measuring Wedges, two, steel, 2.5-in. 64-mm long by0.5 in. 13 mm wide by 0.5 in. thick at one end, and taperedfrom a line 0.5 in. from one end to zero thickness at the otherend. The wedge shall be graduated and numbered along theslope to show the thickness of the wedge between base AB andslope AC in 0.02-in. 0.5-mm divisions Fig. 1.8.2.1 Similar Wedges, of equivalent size and slope that is,rising 1 mm vertically for each 4 mm horizontally, andgraduated along the slope to show the thickness of the wedgebetween base AB and the slope AC in SI units may beemployed in conjunction with a straightedge calibrated in SIunits.9. Procedure9.1 Measuring a Concave Surface9.1.1 Measure and record the length of the diagonal of aconcave surface to the nearest 0.1 in. 3 mm with thegraduated straightedge. Place the straightedge across the di-agonal. Insert the wedge Fig. 2 at the point of maximumwarpage, and record the maximum obtainable reading to thenearest 0.02 in. 0.5 mm.9.1.2 Repeat the procedure in 9.1.1 for the other diagonal.9.2 Measuring a Convex Surface9.2.1 Measure and record the length of the diagonal of aconvex surface to the nearest 0.1 in. 3 mm with a caliper orhook rule. Place the straightedge across the diagonal, and insertone wedge at each end of the straightedge Fig. 3. Adjust thewedges so that equal readings are obtained on each, makingcertain that the straightedge is in contact with the brick surfaceat the point of maximum convexity. Record the reading to thenearest 0.02 in. 0.5 mm.9.2.2 Repeat the procedure in 9.2.1 for the other diagonal.9.2.3 Alternatively, set the shape on its convex surface, on aplane surface, and insert one wedge at each end of a diagonaluntil each wedge is in contact with the diagonal Fig. 4.Adjustuntil equal readings are obtained on each wedge, makingcertain that contact is maintained at the vertices of the diagonaland at the point of maximum convexity. Record the reading tothe nearest 0.02 in. 0.5 mm.9.2.4 Repeat the procedure in 9.2.3 for the other diagonal.10. Calculation and Report10.1 Calculate the percent warpage for each of the diagonalpositions using Eq 3W 5 R/D 3100 3NOTE 1SI Equivalents Dimensions are in inchs.in. mm0.52.51364FIG. 1 Measuring WedgeC134 − 95 20162whereW warpage, ,R wedge reading, in. mm, andD length of diagonal, in. mm.10.2 Consider the larger of the warpage figures as that of thespecimen. Report the warpage values for the individual speci-mens to two significant figures.SQUARENESS OF REFRACTORY BRICK11. Apparatus11.1 Metal Plate, 24 by 24 by 1-in. 610 by 610 by 25 mmthick, with one surface ground to a flatness of 60.005 in. 0.13mm, or an equivalent abrasion-resistant flat surface.11.2 Precision Square, 12 by 9 in. 305 by 229 mm.11.3 Measuring Wedge, steel, 2.5 in. 64 mm long by 0.5in. 13 mm wide by 0.5 in. thick at one end, and tapered froma line 0.5 in. at one end to zero thickness at the other end. Thewedge shall be graduated and numbered along the slope toshow the thickness of the wedge between base AB and slopeAC in 0.02 in. 0.5 mm divisions Fig. 1.12. Procedure12.1 Place the test specimen on the metal plate so that itrests securely on a width face Fig. 5.12.2 Abut the square at about midpoint of the long dimen-sion.12.3 Insert the steel wedge at the point of maximumdeparture between the square and brick surface Fig. 5.12.4 Read and record the deviation to the nearest 0.02 in.0.5 mm.12.5 Repeat the procedures in 12.2, 12.3, and 12.4 for theopposite vertical face and each end.12.6 Reposition the specimen to rest securely on a thicknessface.12.7 Repeat the procedures in 12.2, 12.3, and 12.4 for bothmajor vertical faces and each end.13. Report13.1 Report the following13.1.1 Brick brand and nominal size.13.1.2 Individual deviation obtained from each measuredface for each specimen in the sampling.14. Precision and Bias14.1 Precision14.1.1 Interlaboratory Test ProgramAn interlaboratorystudy was conducted by six laboratories on ten specimensusing two replications and two duplicate runs on the samespecimen. The specimens were stiff mud extruded and pressedsuper duty brick.14.1.2 RepeatabilityThe maximum permissible differencedue to test error between two test results obtained by oneFIG. 2 of Measuring Warpage of a Concave SurfaceFIG. 3 of Measuring Warpage of a Convex SurfaceFIG. 4 Alternative of Measuring Warpage of a ConvexSurfaceAWidth faceBThickness faceCEnd faceFIG. 5 of Measuring SquarenessC134 − 95 20163operator on the same material is given by the repeatabilityinterval and the relative repeatability interval coefficient ofvariation. The 95 repeatbility intervals are given in Table 1.Two test results that do not differ by more than the repeatabilityinterval will be considered the same, and, conversely, two testresults that do differ by more than the repeatability interval willbe considered different.14.1.3 ReproducibilityThe maximum permissible differ-ence due to test error between two test results obtained by twooperators in different laboratories on the same type of materialusing the same type of test equipment is given by thereproducibility interval and relative reproducibility intervalcoefficient of variation. The 95 reproducibility intervals aregiven in Table 1. Two test results that do not differ by morethan the reproducibility interval will be considered the sameand, conversely, two test results that do differ by more than thereproducibility interval will be considered different.14.2 BiasNo justifiable bias statement is possible sincethe true values of the properties of the reference material arenot defined.15. Keywords15.1 bulk density; dimension; insulating firebrick; refracto-ries; size; squareness; warpageASTM International takes no position respecting the validity of any patent rights asserted in connection with any item mentionedin this standard. Users of this standard are expressly advised that determination of the validity of any such patent rights, and the riskof infringement of such rights, are entirely their own responsibility.This standard is subject to revision at any time by the responsible technical committee and must be reviewed every five years andif not revised, either reapproved or withdrawn. 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Permission rights to photocopy the standard may also be secured from the Copyright Clearance Center, 222Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, Tel 978 646-2600; http// 1 Precision StatisticsPrecision Data Relative Precision DataAttributeAverage,in.Std.DeviationwithinLab SrStd. DeviationbetweenLab SRRepeatabilityIntervalReproducibilityInterval RWithinLab VrBetweenLab VRRelativeRepeatability,rRelativeReproducibility,RLength 8.941 0.007 0.01 0.017 0.028 0.072 0.11 0.199 0.308Width 4.356 0.007 0.011 0.017 0.027 0.135 0.227 0.38 0.631Thickness 2.96 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.020 0.25 0.56 0.69Diagonal Warpage 0.265 0.079 0.124 0.22 0.348 30.099 52.529 84.277 147.08Squareness of Width 0.022 0.011 0.015 0.035 0.043 69.39 84.731 194.29 237.247Squareness MaxDeviation Midpoint ofLength0.04 0.018 0.019 0.053 0.056 50.043 53.23 140.121 149.045Squareness MaxDeviation Midpoint ofThickness0.032 0.012 0.012 0.032 0.039 36.413 44.168 101.96 123.67Squareness MaxDeviation Midpoint ofWidth0.034 0.01 0.011 0.027 0.034 29.549 36.674