# SAE J1324v001

SAE Technical Standards Board Rules provide that: “This report is published by SAE to advance the state of technical and engineering sciences. The use of this report is entirelyvoluntary, and its applicability and suitability for any particular use, including any patent infringement arising therefrom, is the sole responsibility of the user.”SAE reviews each technical report at least every five years at which time it may be reaffirmed, revised, or cancelled. SAE invites your written comments and suggestions.QUESTIONS REGARDING THIS DOCUMENT: (724) 772-8512 FAX: (724) 776-0243TO PLACE A DOCUMENT ORDER; (724) 776-4970 FAX: (724) 776-0790SAE WEB ADDRESS http://www.sae.orgCopyright 1989 Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc.All rights reserved. Printed in U.S.A.SURFACEVEHICLE400 Commonwealth Drive, Warrendale, PA 15096-0001RECOMMENDEDPRACTICESubmitted for recognition as an American National StandardJ1324REV.OCT89Issued 1981-12Revised 1989-10Superseding J1324 NOV84ACOUSTICAL AND THERMAL MATERIALS TEST PROCEDUREForeword—This document has also changed to comply with SAE Technical Standards Board format. Referenceswere added as Section 2.1. Scope—This SAE Recommended Practice provides test methods for determining the characteristics ofacoustical and thermal materials. Where applicable, methods of test developed by SAE and ASTM have beenreferenced.2. References2.1 Applicable Publications—The following publications form a part of this specification to the extent specifiedherein. Unless otherwise indicated, the latest version of SAE publications shall apply.2.1.1 SAE PUBLICATIONS—Available from SAE, 400 Commonwealth Drive, Warrendale, PA 15096-001.SAE J315—Fiberboard Test ProceduresSAE J1325—Test Method for Measuring the Relative Drapeability of Flexible Insulation MaterialsSAE J1326—Test Method for Measuring Wet Color Transfer CharacteristicsSAE J1351—Hot Odor Test for Insulation MaterialsSAE J1352—Compression and Recovery of Insulation PaddingsSAE J1355—Test Method for Measuring Thickness of Resilient Insulating PaddingsSAEJ1361—Hot Plate Methods for Evaluating Heat Resistance and Thermal Insulation Properties ofMaterialsSAE J1389—Corrosion Test for Insulation MaterialsSAE J1400—Laboratory Measurement of the Airborne Noise Reduction of Acoustical Materials2.1.2 ANSI PUBLICATION—Available from ANSI, 11 West 42nd Street, New York, NY 10036-8002.ANSI 1.1-1960 (R 1971)SAE J1324 Revised OCT89-2-2.1.3 ASTM PUBLICATIONS—Available from ASTM, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959.ASTMC177—Test Method for Steady-State Heat Flux Measurements and Thermal TransmissionProperties by Means of the Guarded-Hot-Plate ApparatusASTMC384—Test Method for Impedance and Absorption of Acoustical Materials by the Impedance TubeMethodASTMC423—Test Method for Sound Absorption and Sound Absorption Coefficients by the ReverberationRoom MethodASTMC518—Test Method for Steady-State Heat Flux Measurements and Thermal TransmissionProperties by Means of the Heat Flow Meter ApparatusASTM C 870—Practice for Conditioning of Thermal Insulating MaterialsASTM E 756—Method for Measuring Vibration-Damping Properties of MaterialsASTME1050—Test Method for Impedance and Absorption of Acoustical Materials Using a Tube, TwoMicrophones, and a Digital Frequency Analysis System3. Terminology3.1 Acoustical Terminology3.1.1 SOUND ABSORPTION—Sound absorption is the change of sound energy into some other form, usually heat, inpassing through a medium or on striking a surface.3.1.2 TRANSMISSION LOSS—Transmission loss is the reduction in the magnitude of some characteristic of a signal,between two stated points in a transmission system.3.1.3 DAMPING—Damping is the dissipation of energy with time or distance.NOTE—Acoustical terminology adopted from ANSI 1.1-1960 (R 1971).3.2 Thermal Terminology3.2.1 CONDUCTION—The transfer of heat from one part of a body to another part of the same body or betweenbodies in physical contact.3.2.2 CONVECTION—The transfer of heat by movement of the heated and/or cooled particles of a fluid medium.3.2.3 RADIATION—A process of emitting energy electromagnetically. (Thermal radiation differs from other forms ofheat transfer in that its speed of propagation equals that of light and no intervening medium is required for itstransmission.)3.2.4 EMITTANCE—The ability of a surface to emit radiant energy. It is expressed as the ratio of the radiant energyemitted per unit time, per unit area, by an opaque material to that by a blackbody at the same temperature.3.2.5 THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY (K-FACTOR)—The rate of heat flow through a homogeneous material under steady-state conditions, through unit area, per unit temperature gradient in the direction perpendicular to anisothermal surface.(Eq. 1)k Btuin⋅hft2 °F⋅⋅------------------------ λ Wm2 K⋅----------------==SAE J1324 Revised OCT89-3-3.2.6 THERMAL CONDUCTANCE (C-FACTOR)—The rate of heat flow under steady-state conditions between twodefinite surfaces at uniform separation, divided by the difference of their average temperatures and by thearea of one surface. The average temperature is one which adequately approximates that obtained byintegrating the temperatures of the entire surface.(Eq. 2)3.2.7 THERMAL TRANSMITTANCE (U-FACTOR) (OVERALL COEFFICIENT OF HEAT TRANSFER)—The rate of heat flowunder steady-state conditions from surroundings on one side of a body, through a unit area of the body, tothe surroundings on its opposite side, divided by the temperature difference between the two surroundings.(Eq. 3)3.2.8 TABLE OF ABBREVIATIONSBtu = British thermal unitsft = footh = hour°F = degree Fahrenheitin = inchλ = metric symbol for thermal conductivityW = wattm = meterK = degree Kelvin°C = degree Celsius (centrigrade)4. Test Procedures4.1 Thickness—See SAE J1355.4.2 Mass (Weight) per Unit Area—The mass (weight) per unit area determination shall be made according to themethod described in SAE J315 Section 6, and shall be reported as kg/m2 (lb/ft2).4.3 Density—The density shall be calculated, using the thickness and mass (weight) per unit area figures from 4.1and 4.2 and using the formula(Eq. 4)where:d = density in kg/m3 (lb/ft3)M = mass (weight per unit area in kg/m2 (lb/ft2)t = thickness in m (ft)4.4 Thermal Conductivity (k-Factor)—For routine evaluation, quality control, and classification of materials,testing shall be conducted according to the method specified in ASTM C 518. For arbitration purposes, the testmethod specified in ASTM C 177, shall be used. Test results shall be reported in units of: λ or k.The mean temperature, at which the k-Factor was determined, shall be reported. The temperature of the topand bottom platens contacting the surfaces of the test specimen shall also be reported.C Btuhft2 °F⋅⋅------------------------ CWm2 K⋅----------------==U Btuhft2 °F⋅⋅------------------------ UWm2 K⋅----------------==d Mt----=SAE J1324 Revised OCT89-4-4.5 Resistance to Heat Flow (R-Factor)—The R-Factor for a homogeneous material can be calculated from its k-Factor and the thickness (t) of the material by the following formula: (Eq. 5)4.6 Heat Resistance—See SAE J1361.4.7 Resistance of Staining—See SAE J1326.4.8 Stiffness - Drapeability Test—See SAE J1325.4.9 Compression-Recovery—See SAE J1352.4.10 Dimensional Stability—The linear expansion and contraction shall be determined by the test methodsdescribed in SAE J315.4.10.1 EXPANSION—Use Method A.4.10.2 CONTRACTION—Use Method A, followed by Method C.4.11 Odor—See SAE J1351.4.12 Corrosion—See SAE J1389.4.13 Sound Absorption4.13.1 NORMAL INCIDENCE—Two standardized methods exist. The differences between the two are in theequipment needed and the time required to perform the test. The results from one should match the other.See ASTM C 384 and ASTM E 1050.4.13.2 RANDOM INCIDENCE—See ASTM C 423.4.14 Vibration Damping—See ASTM E 756.4.15 Airborne Noise Reduction—See SAE J1400.5. General Comments5.1 Conditioning—Some materials require specific conditioning prior to testing; when applicable, see ASTM C 870.6. Notes6.1 Marginal Indicia—The change bar (l) located in the left margin is for the convenience of the user in locatingareas where technical revisions have been made to the previous issue of the report. An (R) symbol to the leftof the document title indicates a complete revision of the report.PREPARED BY THE SAE SOUND AND HEAT INSULATION MATERIALS COMMITTEER tk--=SAE J1324 Revised OCT89Rationale—Not applicable.Relationship of SAE Standard to ISO Standard—Not applicable.Application—This SAE Recommended Practice provides test methods for determining the characteristics ofacoustical and thermal materials. Where applicable, methods of test developed by SAE and ASTM havebeen referenced.Reference SectionSAE J315—Fiberboard Test ProcedureSAE J1325—Test Method for Measuring the Relative Drapeability of Flexible Insulation MaterialsSAE J1326—Test Method for Measuring Wet Color Transfer CharacteristicsSAE J1351—Hot Odor Test for Insulation MAterialsSAE J1352—Compression and Recovery of Insulation PaddingsSAE J1355—Test Method for Measuring Thickness of Resilient Insulating PaddingsSAEJ1361—Hot Plate Method for Evaluating Heat Resistance and Thermal Insulation Properties ofMaterialsSAE J1389—Corrosion Test for Insulation MAterialsSAE J1400—Laboratory Measurement of the Airborne Noise Reduction of Acoustical MaterialsANSI 1.1-1960 (R 1971)ASTMC177—Test Method for Steady-State Heat Flux Measurements and Thermal TransmissionProperties by Means of the Guarded-Hot-Plate ApparatusASTMC384—Test Method for Impedance and Absorption of Acoustical Materials by the Impedance TubeMethodASTMC423—Test Method for Sound Absorption and Sound Absorption Coefficients by the ReverberationRoom MethodASTMC518—Test Method for Steady-State Heat Flux Measurements and Thermal TransmissionProperties by Means of the Heat Flow Meter ApparatusASTM C 870—Practice for Conditioning of Thermal Insulating MaterialsASTM E 756—Method for Measuring Vibration-Damping Properties of MaterialsASTME1050—Test Method for Impedance and Absorption of Acoustical Materials Using a Tube, TwoMicrophones, and a Digital Frequency Analysis SystemDeveloped by the SAE Sound and Heat Insulation Materials Committee