# SAE J1063v001

SAE Technical Standards Board Rules provide that: “This report is published by SAE to advance the state of technical and engineering sciences. The use of this report is entirelyvoluntary, and its applicability and suitability for any particular use, including any patent infringement arising therefrom, is the sole responsibility of the user.”SAE reviews each technical report at least every five years at which time it may be reaffirmed, revised, or cancelled. SAE invites your written comments and suggestions.QUESTIONS REGARDING THIS DOCUMENT: (724) 772-8512 FAX: (724) 776-0243TO PLACE A DOCUMENT ORDER; (724) 776-4970 FAX: (724) 776-0790SAE WEB ADDRESS http://www.sae.orgCopyright 1993 Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc.All rights reserved. Printed in U.S.A.SURFACEVEHICLE400 Commonwealth Drive, Warrendale, PA 15096-0001STANDARDSubmitted for recognition as an American National StandardJ1063REV.NOV93Issued 1974-01Revised 1993-11Superseding J1063 OCT80(R) CANTILEVERED BOOM CRANE STRUCTURES—METHOD OF TESTForeword—This Document has also changed to comply with the new SAE Technical Standards Board format.1. Scope—This SAE Standard applies to mobile, construction-type lifting cranes of the cantilever boom type(Figure 1). Questions and comments regarding application or interpretation of the provisions in this testmethod should be referred to the originating SAE Committee. 11.1 Purpose—The purpose of this test method is to provide a systematic, nondestructive procedure fordetermining the stresses induced in cantilevered boom crane structures under specified conditions of staticloading through use of resistance-type electric strain gages, and to specify appropriate stress levels forspecified loading conditions. Further, a 25% overload test is included to prove the overall structural integrity ofthe structure.2. References2.1 Applicable Publications—The following publications form a part of this specification to the extent specifiedherein.2.1.1 ASTM PUBLCATION—Available from ASTM, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959.ASTM E 251-67—Test Methods for Performance Characteristics of Bonded Resistance Strain Gages2.2 Other PublicationsJoseph Marin, “Mechanical Behavior of Engineering Materials,“ Englewood, N. J.: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1962“Guide to Design Criteria for Metal Compression Members,“ Column Research Council, Cushion Mallory,Inc., Ann Arbor, Michigan, 19603. Definitions3.1 Strain (ε)—Deformation of material caused by weight and applied loading, quantitatively stated as unit changefrom an original dimension in meters per meter (m/m) (in/in).1. Chairman, Subcommittee SC31, ORMTC, Society of Automotive Engineers, 400 Commonwealth Drive, Warrendale, PA 15096-0001.SAE J1063 Revised NOV93-2-FIGURE 1—TYPICAL CONSTRUCTION-TYPE CRANESSAE J1063 Revised NOV93-3-3.2 Stress (S)—The intensity of internal force accompanying strain, expressed in pascals (Pa) (psi). For purposesof this test method, stress is related to measured strain by the uniaxial stress equation:(Eq. 1)where:S = stress, Pa (psi)E = modulus of elasticity, Pa (psi) for the material involved (see 8.5)ε = strain gage reading, m/m (in/in)NOTE— The simple uniaxial stress formula may be insufficiently accurate for some areas of crane structuresunder biaxial stress and special consideration should be given in such cases. (See 10.1.1.)3.3 Yield Point (Sy)—The stress at which a disproportionate increase in strain occurs without a correspondingincrease in stress. For purposes of this code, yield point is to be considered as the minimum yield point or yieldstrength specified by the appropriate standard or by manufacturer for the material used.3.4 Critical Buckling Stress (Scr)—The average stress which produces an incipient buckling condition in columntype members. (See 10.3.1.)3.5 Initial Reference Test Condition—The defined no stress or zero stress condition of the crane structure after“break-in“ (see 8.3) as established by:a. Supporting the structure on blocking to minimize the effects of gravity; orb. The crane structure components in an unassembled state, or any alternate method that will establishthe zero stress condition. Under this condition, the initial reference reading for each gage is obtained,N1.3.6 Dead Load Stress Condition—The completely assembled crane structure on the test site and in the specifiedposition or attitude, ready to accept or pick up the specified live load. Under this condition the second readingfor each gage is obtained, N2.NOTE— In determining N2, the weight of hook, block, slings, etc., is considered as live load and should beresting on the ground or supported by a structure other than the crane.3.7 Dead Load Stress (S1)—The stress computed as defined in 3.2, by using the difference in the readingsobtained in 3.6 and 3.5 for each gage, (N2 - N1).3.8 Live Load Stress Condition—The completely assembled crane structure on the test site and in the specifiedposition or attitude, supporting the specified live load. Under this condition the third reading for each gage isobtained, N3.3.9 Live Load Stress (S2)—The stress computed as defined in 3.2, by using the difference in the readingsobtained in 3.8 and 3.6 for each gage, (N3 - N2).3.10 Resultant Stress (Sr)—The maximum stress induced in the structure as a result of dead load stress (S1) orthe algebraic sum of dead load stress (S1) and live load stress (S2), whichever is greater.3.10.1 RESULTANT AVERAGE STRESS (Sra)—The direct compression stress in a column or the average stresscomputed from the several gages loaded at the section. (See 10.3.1.)SEε within the proportional limit()⋅=SAE J1063 Revised NOV93-4-3.10.2 RESULTANT MAXIMUM STRESS (SRM)—The maximum compression stress in a column computed from theplane of buckling, as established from the several gages located at the section. (See 10.3.1.)3.11 Loadings—The application of weights or forces of the magnitude specified under the conditions specified.4. Symbol Nomenclature Summary—DL = dead load stress, Pa (psi)E = modulus of elasticity, Pa (psi)G = modulus of rigidity (shear), Pa (psi)JL = jib length, m (ft)K = effective length factor for columnL = unbraced length of column, m (in)Lb = length of boom, m (ft) (see 8.6.1 and 8.6.2)Lj1 = length of jibs or extensions, m (ft) (see 8.6.2)Lj2.Ljn = length of additional jibs or extensions, m (ft) (see 8.6.2)LL = live load stress, Pa (psi)n1 = strength margin, Class I area, ratio of yield strength to resultant or equivalent stressn2 = strength margin, Class II area, ratio of yield strength to resultant or equivalent stressn3 = strength margin (derived from an interaction relationship) in Class III areasN1 = gage reading at initial reference test condition (zero stress condition)N2 = gage reading at dead load stress conditionN3 = gage reading at live load stress conditionr = radius of gyration of cross section, m (in)RR = rated radius, m (ft)RL = rated load, kg (lb)S = stress, Pa (psi)S1 = dead load stress, Pa (psi)S2 = live load stress, Pa (psi)Scr = computed critical buckling stress for axially loaded compression elements, Pa (psi)SL = side load, kg (lb)SAE J1063 Revised NOV93-5-SLL = side load, left, kg (lb)SLR = side load, right, kg (lb)Sp = stress at effective proportional limit, defined as Sy - SRC, Pa (psi)Sr = resultant stress, Pa (psi)Sra = resultant average stress computed from several gages at one section, Pa (psi)SRC = maximum residual stress in compression, Pa (psi)Srm = maximum compression stress in a column computed from plane of buckling as established by severalgages at one section, Pa (psi)Sy = stress at yield point, Pa (psi)S = equivalent uniaxial stress, Pa (psi)t = horizontal distance from the load center to the front pad reaction center for each boom section underconsideration, m (ft)v = Poisson s ratioα = boom elevation angle, degreesβ = jib offset angle, degreesε = strain, m/m (in/in)εa = strain recorded from leg “a“ of rosetteεb = strain recorded from leg “b“ of rosetteεc = strain recorded from leg “c“ of rosetteεd = strain recorded from leg “d“ of rosetteεx = maximum principal strainεy = minimum principal strainθ = direction of principal stress, degµ = units of strain, 10-6 m/m (in/in)v = Poisson s ratioσo = tensile yield stress, Pa (psi)σx = maximum principal stress, Pa (psi)σy = minimum principal stress, Pa (psi)SAE J1063 Revised NOV93-6-TO = shear yield stress, Pa (psi)5. Limitations5.1 This method applies to load-supporting structures as differentiated from power transmitting mechanisms. It isrestricted to measuring stresses under static conditions, and a general observation after overload conditions.This method does not apply to lift capacity on tires.5.2 Personnel competent in the analysis of structures and the use of strain-measuring instruments are required toperform the tests.6. Method of Loading6.1 Suspended Load—The specified load suspended at the specified radius and held stationary a few inches offthe ground while strain readings are taken.NOTE—The weight of the hook, block, slings, and rigging is considered as live load and shall be included aspart of the specified suspended load. Hoisting rope is not considered part of live load.6.2 Side Load—When the test condition requires side load, this load shall be applied horizontally and normal tothe plane containing the axis of superstructure rotation and the centerline of the undeflected boom. Usemanufacturer s specified reeving, and with the hoist line leaving the drum from an arbitrary position, the sideload shall be applied as 3% (0.03 RL) in each direction, with the boom over the end of the machine, record N3for each direction. ( See 3.8 and note in 9.4.4.)NOTE—Side loading is applied to simulate the dynamic effects associated with machine operation including a9 m/s (20 mph) wind loading that may be encountered.6.3 Deadman Load—Deadman loading may be used, but caution must be exercised to assure accuratesimulation of live load testing, especially with respect to side loads. Positioning with this system is difficult.Deadman loading is not acceptable for tests 3, 4, 6, 7, and 8 in Table 1.7. Facilities, Apparatus, and Material7.1 A concrete or other firm supporting surface, sufficiently large to provide for unobstructed accomplishment ofthe tests required. Where tests are to be performed on crawler tracks, the machine shall be level within 0.25%grade.7.2 Means to measure levelness of the axis of the boom foot; accuracy 0.1% of grade.7.3 Means for determining the load radius to an accuracy of ± 1% not to exceed 0.2 m (6 in).7.4 Means for producing transverse displacement of the suspended load and means for measuring the magnitudeof the displacing force; accuracy ±3% of measured force.7.5 Strain Gages, Cement, Waterproofing Compounds, and Other Necessary Gage Installation Equip-ment—Temperature-compensated strain gages designed for bonding to the materials to be tested shall beused. The gage factor shall have a tolerance within ±1%, gage resistance shall have a tolerance within ±0.3%for single element gages and ±0.4% for multielement gages. Gage testing must conform with ASTM E 251-67.SAE J1063 Revised NOV93-7-TABLE 1—CANTILEVER BOOM CRANE TESTSTestNo.Test ConditionsSelectApplyPurpose is to TestTested Components and Strength MarginsCarrierSuper-structureBoomand jibSuspension(exceptrope)1 Max (RR × RL) with largest rated load allowed at this load momentRL and position superstructure in allowed rotation range to obtain maximum strain in member testedOutrigger and carrier frame for maximum live load momenta. Over end Y Y --- ---b. Over side Y --- --- ---2 Max (RR × RL) with longest boom at this load momenta. RL and side load Telescopic boom overlap effects, hoist or suspension system, superstructure and turntable bearing system-- Y Y Yb. 1.25 RL or tipping load, whichever is less, over endBoom buckling, hoist cylinder, or suspension system--- Z Z Z3 Max boom length, then max (RR × RL) a. RL and side load Telescopic boom overlap effect --- --- Y Yb. 1.25 RL or tipping load, whichever is less, over endBoom buckling and side bending effect --- Z Z ---4 Max boom length then min attainable RR a. RL and side load Side bending of boom, side load effect on superstructure--- Y Y Yb. 1.25 RL or tipping, whichever is less, over endExtension cylinder buckling, boom bending effect, hoist cylinder buckling, or suspension system--- Z Z Z5 Max numerical load, then shortest boom and min (RR)a. RL and position superstructure in allowed rotation range to obtain maximum strain in member testedBoom point integrity, foot pin force, outrigger and carrier frame. Turntable bearing systemY Y Y ---b. 1.25 RL or tipping, whichever is less Suspension system Z Z Z Z6 Max (jib RL × JL × cos [α - β]), then longest boom and jib specifieda. RL and side load Integrity of jib, boom point, and boom top section--- --- Y Yb. 1.25 RL over end, or tipping whichever is less--- --- Z Z7 Max (jib RL × JL × sin β) then longest boom specifieda. RL and side load Torsional effects of jib offset on boom and jib--- --- Y Yb. 1.25 RL over end or tipping, whichever is less--- --- Z Z8 Max boom angle, max boom length, max specified jib at minimum offseta. RL and side load Integrity and stability of jib and boom --- --- Y Yb. 1.25 RL over end or tipping, whichever is less--- --- Z Z9 Max allowable RL with boom extended 1 to 3 in (25 to 76 mm) at min RR1.25 RL over end or tipping, whichever is lessBoom extension cylinder attachments --- --- Z Z10 Max (RL × t) for each section. With the largest rated load allowed at this load momenta. RL and side load Bending effects on manual and powered sections at random boom angles and section extension--- --- Y ---b. 1.25 RL over end or tipping, whichever is less--- --- Z ---11 Maximum Auxiliary Outrigger Load a. RL Auxiliary outrigger and carrier frame integrityY --- --- ---b. 1.25 RL or tipping Z --- --- ---SAE J1063 Revised NOV93-8-7.6 Strain Indicating or Recording Instruments—It is the intent that commercially available, high quality, reliableinstruments be used in the performance of this test. Accuracy of the indicating instrument or the recordingsystem shall be determined to be ±2% over the range of 0 to 3000 µ (m/m) (in/in) strain (determined in suitableincrements). Calibration may be accomplished by electrical shunts or by precalibrated strain bar.8. Preparations for Test8.1 Structure Analysis—Make an analysis of each structure sufficient to locate critically stressed areas. Thesemay include uniformly high-stressed regions as well as points of stress concentration. (see 10.1.) Brittlelacquer may be used as an aid in gage placement.8.2 Perform a detailed inspection of crane to insure that all mechanical adjustments and condition of load-supporting components conform to manufacturer s published recommendations. Check that the crane isequipped in compliance with the test specification.8.3 A previously unworked crane should be given a “break-in“ run at or n