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ASTM D6931-17

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ASTM D6931-17

Designation D6931 − 17Standard Test Method forIndirect Tensile IDT Strength of Asphalt Mixtures1This standard is issued under the fixed designation D6931; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year oforiginal adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. Asuperscript epsilon indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.1. Scope1.1 This test method covers procedures for preparing andtesting laboratory-fabricated or field-recovered cores of asphaltmixtures to determine the indirect tensile IDT strength.1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded asstandard. No other units of measurement are included in thisstandard.1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of thesafety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is theresponsibility of the user of this standard to establish appro-priate safety and health practices and determine the applica-bility of regulatory limitations prior to use.1.4 This international standard was developed in accor-dance with internationally recognized principles on standard-ization established in the Decision on Principles for theDevelopment of International Standards, Guides and Recom-mendations issued by the World Trade Organization TechnicalBarriers to Trade TBT Committee.2. Referenced Documents2.1 ASTM Standards2D1074 Test Method for Compressive Strength of AsphaltMixturesD1561/D1561M Practice for Preparation of BituminousMixture Test Specimens by Means of California KneadingCompactorD3387 Test Method for Compaction and Shear Properties ofBituminous Mixtures by Means of the U.S. Corps ofEngineers Gyratory Testing Machine GTMD3496 Practice for Preparation of Bituminous MixtureSpecimens for Dynamic Modulus Testing Withdrawn20103D3549/D3549M Test Method for Thickness or Height ofCompacted Bituminous Paving Mixture SpecimensD3666 Specification for Minimum Requirements for Agen-cies Testing and Inspecting Road and Paving MaterialsD4013 Practice for Preparation of Test Specimens of Bitu-minous Mixtures by Means of Gyratory Shear CompactorWithdrawn 20133D4867/D4867M Test Method for Effect of Moisture onAsphalt Concrete Paving MixturesD5581 Test Method for Resistance to Plastic Flow of Bitu-minous Mixtures Using Marshall Apparatus 6 inch-Diameter SpecimenD6925 Test Method for Preparation and Determination ofthe Relative Density of Asphalt Mix Specimens by Meansof the Superpave Gyratory CompactorD6926 Practice for Preparation of Asphalt Mixture Speci-mens Using Marshall ApparatusD6927 Test Method for Marshall Stability and Flow ofAsphalt MixturesE1 Specification for ASTM Liquid-in-Glass Thermometers2.2 AASHTO Standards4AASHTO T 245 Standard Method for Resistance to PlasticFlow of Bituminous Mixtures Using Marshall ApparatusAASHTO T 312 Standard Method for Preparing and Deter-mining the Density of Hot Mix Asphalt HMA Speci-mens by Means of the Superpave Gyratory Compactor3. Summary of Test Method3.1 The IDT strength of asphalt mixtures is determined byloading a cylindrical specimen across its vertical diametralplane at a specified rate of deformation and test temperature.The peak load at failure is recorded and used to calculate theIDT strength of the specimen.4. Significance and Use4.1 The values of IDT strength may be used to evaluate therelative quality of asphalt mixtures in conjunction with labo-ratory mix design testing and for estimating the potential forrutting or cracking. The results can also be used to determine1This test method is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee D04 on Roadand Paving Materials and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee D04.26 onFundamental/Mechanistic Tests.Current edition approved July 1, 2017. Published July 2017. Originally approvedin 2007. Last previous edition approved in 2012 as D6931 – 12. DOI 10.1520/D6931-17.2For referenced ASTM standards, visit the ASTM website, www.astm.org, orcontact ASTM Customer Service at serviceastm.org. For Annual Book of ASTMStandards volume information, refer to the standard’s Document Summary page onthe ASTM website.3The last approved version of this historical standard is referenced onwww.astm.org.4Available from American Association of State Highway and TransportationOfficials AASHTO, 444 N. Capitol St., NW, Suite 249, Washington, DC 20001,http//www.transportation.org.Copyright ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959. United StatesThis international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for theDevelopment of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade TBT Committee.1the potential for field pavement moisture damage when resultsare obtained on both moisture-conditioned and unconditionedspecimens.NOTE 1The quality of the results produced by this standard aredependent on the competence of the personnel performing the procedureand the capability, calibration, and maintenance of the equipment used.Agencies that meet the criteria of Specification D3666 are generallyconsidered capable of competent and objective testing, sampling,inspection, etc. Users of this standard are cautioned that compliance withSpecification D3666 alone does not completely ensure reliable results.Reliable results depend on many factors; following the suggestions ofSpecification D3666 or some similar acceptable guideline provides ameans of evaluating and controlling some of those factors.5. Apparatus5.1 Loading DeviceLoading jack and ring dynamometeror a mechanical or servo-hydraulic testing machine with anelectronic load cell, in accordance with Test Method D6927,capable of applying a compressive load at a controlled defor-mation rate while measuring the load and deformation.5.2 Loading StripsSteel loading strips with a concavesurface having a radius of curvature equal to the nominal radiusof the test specimen. For specimens with nominal diameter of100 mm, the loading strips shall be 12.70 6 0.3 mm wide. Forspecimens with nominal diameter of 150 mm, the loadingstrips shall be 19.05 6 0.3 mm wide. The length of the loadingstrips shall exceed the thickness of the specimen. The outeredges of the loading strips shall be beveled slightly to removesharp edges.5.2.1 The loading strips shall be part of a test fixture, similarto that shown in Fig. 1, in which the lower loading strip ismounted on a base having two perpendicular guide rods orposts extending upward. The upper loading strip shall be cleanand freely sliding on the posts. Guide sleeves in the uppersegment of the test fixture shall be in such a position as todirect the two loading strips together without appreciablebinding or loose motion in the guide rods.5.3 Temperature Control SystemAn air or water bathcapable of maintaining the specimens at the specified testtemperature within 61.0 C.5.4 ThermometerA calibrated liquid-in-glass thermometerof suitable range with subdivisions readable to 0.1 C or anyother thermostatic device of equal accuracy, precision, andsensitivity shall be used. Thermometers shall conform to therequirements of Specification E1.5.5 MiscellaneousA tape, ruler, or set of calipers forspecimen height measurement.NOTE 2If testing to determine the potential for moisture damage, theapparatus from Test Method D4867/D4867M or similar will also benecessary.6. Specimens6.1 Laboratory-Molded SpecimensPrepare the laboratory-molded specimens in accordance with one of the followingstandards Test Methods D1074, D3387, D6925; PracticesD1561/D1561M, D3496, D4013, D6926; and AASHTO T 245or AASHTO T 312. A minimum specimen height of 50 mm isrequired for specimens with a nominal diameter of 100 mm. Aminimum specimen height of 75 mm is required for specimenswith a nominal diameter of 150 mm. A minimum of threereplicates shall be prepared for each mixture.6.2 Core SpecimensCores should have smooth surfacesand parallel faces, conforming to the height and diameterrequirements specified for laboratory-molded specimens, ex-cept that a minimum height of 38 mm is permitted forspecimens with a nominal diameter of 100 mm. A minimum ofthree replicates from an in-service pavement shall be preparedfor testing.NOTE 3Specimens with a nominal diameter of 100 mm are suitablefor mixtures with a nominal maximum particle size of 19 mm or less.Specimens with a nominal diameter of 150 mm are suitable for mixtureswith a nominal maximum particle size of 37.5 mm or less.7. Procedure7.1 Determine the specimen height in accordance with TestMethod D3549/D3549M, to the nearest 1 mm.7.2 For core specimens, measure the diameter at the midheight along axes that are 90 apart, and record the average tothe nearest 1 mm.7.3 Bring the specimen to test temperature 61 C by any ofthe following three alternative procedures. The recommendedtest temperature is 25 C.NOTE 4Based on previous experience, a standard temperature that hasbeen used for most IDT strength testing is 25 C. Other test temperaturesmay be used at the discretion of the user.7.3.1 Procedure APlace the specimen in an air bath for aminimum of 4 h.7.3.2 Procedure BPlace the specimen in a heavy dutyleak-proof plastic bag and then place the specimen in a waterbath for a minimum of 2 h.7.3.3 Procedure CPlace the specimen in a water bath fora minimum of 30 min but not longer than 120 min.7.4 Remove the specimen from the air or water bath,remove the specimen from the plastic bag if necessary, andplace onto the lower loading strip. Slowly lower the toploading strip to bring it into light contact with the specimen.Ensure that the loading strips are parallel and centered on thevertical diametral plane. The elapsed time between removal oftest specimens from the bath and the final load determinationshall not exceed 2 min.7.5 Apply a vertical compressive ramp load until the maxi-mum load is reached. The recommended deformation rate is 506 5 mm/min. Record the maximum load.NOTE 5This rate of loading has been commonly used for IDT strengthspecimens with a nominal diameter of 100 mm and is also recommendedin Test Method D5581 when testing larger specimens for MarshallStability with a nominal diameter of 150 mm. Research has not yetindicated if this deformation rate should be adjusted for IDT strengthspecimens with a nominal diameter of 150 mm. Some researchers5havealso used a rate of 3.75 mm/min at higher temperatures 30 to 40 C onspecimens with a nominal diameter of 150 mm to evaluate ruttingpotential.55Christensen, D. W., Bonaquist, R., and Jack, D. P., “Evaluation of TriaxialStrength as a Simple Test for Asphalt Concrete Rut Resistance,” PennsylvaniaDepartment of Transportation, Pennsylvania Transportation Institute, Final Report,August 2000.D6931 − 1728. Calculation8.1 Calculate the IDT strength as followsSt52000 3PΠ 3t 3D1whereSt IDT strength, kPa,P maximum load, N,t specimen height immediately before test, mm, andD specimen diameter, mm.9. Report9.1 Report the following information9.1.1 Type of samples tested laboratory-molded specimensor core specimens and description of mixture such as nominalmaximum aggregate size, gradation, binder type.9.1.2 The measured height and nominal lab or averagecore diameter of each specimen, to the nearest 1 mm.9.1.3 Test temperature, to the nearest 1 C.9.1.4 Deformation rate used in test, to the nearest mm/min.FIG. 1 Diagram of an IDT Strength-Loading FixtureD6931 − 1739.1.5 Procedure used for conditioning specimen as de-scribed in 7.3, including the method of temperature controland total bath time.9.1.6 Maximum compressive load, to the nearest 1 N.9.1.7 The IDT strength of each of the three replicatespecimens and the average IDT strength for the set ofspecimens, to the nearest 10 kPa.10. Precision and Bias10.1 The within-laboratory repeatability standard deviation,for the recommended rate of loading 50 mm/min and testtemperature 25 C, has been determined to be 80 kPa for100-mm diameter specimens, based on 28 labs using either twoor four test replicates with eleven different mix samples.Additional data is provided in Table 1 for the user’s informa-tion. The between-laboratory reproducibility of this testmethod is being determined and will be available on or beforeJune 2018. Therefore, this standard should not be used foracceptance or rejection of materials for purchasing purposes.10.2 No information can be presented on the bias of theprocedure in this test method for measuring the tensile strengthof asphalt mixtures, because it is a destructive test and there isno basis for establishing a true reference value for comparison.11. Keywords11.1 asphalt mixture; IDT; indirect tensile strengthFIG. 2 Photograph of a Typical IDT Strength-Loading FixtureD6931 − 174ASTM International takes no position respecting the validity of any patent rights asserted in connection with any item mentionedin this standard. Users of this standard are expressly advised that determination of the validity of any such patent rights, and the riskof infringement of such rights, are entirely their own responsibility.This standard is subject to revision at any time by the responsible technical committee and must be reviewed every five years andif not revised, either reapproved or withdrawn. Your comments are invited either for revision of this standard or for additional standardsand should be addressed to ASTM International Headquarters. Your comments will receive careful consideration at a meeting of theresponsible technical committee, which you may attend. If you feel that your comments have not received a fair hearing you shouldmake your views known to the ASTM Committee on Standards, at the address shown below.This standard is copyrighted by ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959,United States. Individual reprints single or multiple copies of this standard may be obtained by contacting ASTM at the aboveaddress or at 610-832-9585 phone, 610-832-9555 fax, or serviceastm.org e-mail; or through the ASTM websitewww.astm.org. Permission rights to photocopy the standard may also be secured from the Copyright Clearance Center, 222Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, Tel 978 646-2600; http//www.copyright.com/TABLE 1 Single-Laboratory Repeatability and ReproducibilitySource of DataNumberofReplicatesSpecimenDiametermmLoadingRatemm/minTestTemperatureCAverageStrengthkPaStandardDeviationStrengthkPad2s2.83SEkPaStandardDeviationStrength meand2s2.83SE meanAnderson andMcGennisA3 150 12.5 –10 2870 200 566 7.0 19.8N CHRPReport 530B3 150 12.5 –10 - - - 9 22 – 324 aggregatetypes;4 binders2 150 12.5 –10 - - - 11nom max size9.5mmto25mmSolaimanianandKennedyC–dry4 100 50 25 - 103 292 - -moisture-conditioned50 25 - 83 234 - -9 labs; 3aggregatetypes; 2binders

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