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ASTM D907-15

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ASTM D907-15

Designation D907 − 15Standard Terminology ofAdhesives1This standard is issued under the fixed designation D907; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year oforiginal adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. Asuperscript epsilon indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.1. Scope1.1 This terminology standard is a compilation of defini-tions used in the science and technology of the adhesivesindustry. Terms that are generally understood or adequatelydefined in other readily available sources are not included.1.2 Any changes in this standard since 1988 are documentedas follows1.2.1 Appendix X1 gives a history of revisions made since1988. Table X1.1 lists the terms that are affected as 1 TermsAdded, 2 Terms Revised, and 3 Terms Deleted.1.2.1.1 In Table X1.1, the year of publication in Volume15.06 is shown in parentheses following the term.1.2.2 In the text of the standard, the year of publication isshown following each definition. Also, the following codes areincluded after the year of publication to describe the typechange that was made A Addition, R Revision, or EEdited.1.2.3 Deletions are shown in Appendix X1, suitably foot-noted. The deleted terms do not appear in the text of thestandard.1.2.4 Any special circumstances not covered by 1.2.2 and1.2.3 are documented in Table X1.1, suitably footnoted.2. Referenced Documents2.1 ASTM Standards2D618 Practice for Conditioning Plastics for TestingD2849 Methods of Testing Urethane Foam Polyol RawMaterials Withdrawn 19873D2507 Terminology of Rheological Properties of GelledRocket Propellants Withdrawn 20033D2990 Test Methods for Tensile, Compressive, and FlexuralCreep and Creep-Rupture of PlasticsD3983 Test Method for Measuring Strength and ShearModulus of Nonrigid Adhesives by the Thick-AdherendTensile-Lap SpecimenD4027 Test Method for Measuring Shear Properties ofStructural Adhesives by the Modified-Rail TestD4317 Specification for Polyvinyl Acetate-Based EmulsionAdhesivesD4499 Test Method for Heat Stability of Hot-Melt Adhe-sivesD4680 Test Method for Creep and Time to Failure ofAdhesives in Static Shear by Compression LoadingWood-to-WoodD5266 Practice for Estimating the Percentage of WoodFailure in Adhesive Bonded JointsE6 Terminology Relating to Methods of Mechanical Testing3. Terminologyacceptance test, na test, or series of tests conducted by theprocuring agency, or an agent thereof, upon receipt todetermine whether an individual lot of materials conforms tothe purchase order or contract or to determine the degree ofuniformity of the material supplied by the vendor, or both.Compare preproduction test and qualification test.acid number, nthe quantity of base, expressed in milligramsof potassium hydroxide, that is required to titrate acidicconstituents present in1gofsample. 1992 A D2849,D20adhere, vto cause two surfaces to be held together byadhesion.adherend, na body held to another body by an adhesive.adherend preparation, nsee surface preparation.adhesion, nthe state in which two surfaces are held togetherby interphase forces.mechanical adhesion, nadhesion between surfaces inwhich the adhesive holds the parts together by interlockingaction.specific adhesion, nadhesion between surfaces which areheld together by intermolecular forces of a chemical orphysical nature. 2000 Radhesion failure, nrupture of an adhesive bond in which theseparation appears visually to be at the adhesive/adherendinterface.1This terminology is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee D14 onAdhesives and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee D14.04 on Terminology.Current edition approved Sept. 15, 2015. Published October 2015. Originallyapproved in 1947. Last previous edition approved in 2012 as D907 – 12a. DOI10.1520/D0907-15.2For referenced ASTM standards, visit the ASTM website, www.astm.org, orcontact ASTM Customer Service at serviceastm.org. For Annual Book of ASTMStandards volume information, refer to the standard’s Document Summary page onthe ASTM website.3The last approved version of this historical standard is referenced onwww.astm.org.Copyright ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959. United States1adhesion promoter, na substance used to improve bondingof the adhesive to the substrate. Compare coupling agentand primer.DISCUSSIONThe adhesion promoter may be added to an adhesiveformulation or applied to the substrate.adhesive, na substance capable of holding materials togetherby surface attachment. See also glue, gum, mucilage,paste, resin, and sizing.DISCUSSIONAdhesive is the general term and includes among otherscement, glue, mucilage, and paste. These terms are loosely usedinterchangeably. Various descriptive adjectives are applied to the termadhesive to indicate certain characteristics as follows1 Physical form, that is, liquid adhesive, tape adhesive2 Chemical type, that is, silicate adhesive, resin adhesive3 Materials bonded, that is, paper adhesive, metal-plasticadhesive4 Conditions of use, that is, hot-setting adhesiveadhesive, assembly, nsee assembly adhesive.adhesive, bulk, nsee bulk adhesive.adhesive, casein, nsee casein adhesive.adhesive, cellular, nsee cellular adhesive.adhesive, cold-setting, nsee cold-setting adhesive.adhesive, contact, nsee contact adhesive.adhesive, foamed, nsee foamed adhesive.adhesive, gap-filling, nsee gap-filling adhesive.adhesive, heat activated, nsee heat activated adhesive.adhesive, hot-melt, nsee hot-melt adhesive.adhesive, hot-setting, nsee hot-setting adhesive.adhesive, intermediate-temperature-setting, nseeintermediate-temperature-setting adhesive.adhesive, mastic, nsee mastic adhesive.adhesive, multiple-layer, nsee multiple-layer adhesive.adhesive, polyvinyl acetate emulsion, nsee polyvinyl ac-etate emulsion adhesive.adhesive, pressure-sensitive, nsee pressure-sensitive ad-hesive.adhesive, room-temperature-setting, nsee room-temperature-setting adhesive.adhesive, separate application, nsee separate-application adhesive.adhesive, solvent, nsee solvent adhesive.adhesive, solvent-activated, nsee solvent-activated adhe-sive.adhesive, structural, nsee structural adhesive.adhesive, warm-setting, nsee warm-setting adhesive.adhesive, urea-formaldehyde, nsee urea-formaldehydeadhesive.adhesive, anaerobic, nsee anaerobic adhesive.adhesive dispersion, nsee dispersion. Compare to emul-sion.adhesive joint, nlocation at which two adherends are heldtogether with adhesive.adhesive-joint failure, nthe locus of fracture occurring in anadhesively-bonded joint resulting in a loss of load-carryingcapability. See also adhesion failure and cohesion failure.1995 Asubstrate failure, nin characterizing the locus of anadhesive-joint failure, the fracture occurring within thesubstrate. See cohesion failure.aggressive tack, nsee aggressive tack under tack.aging time, nsee joint conditioning time.amylaceous, adjpertaining to, or of the nature of, starch;starchy.anaerobic adhesive, nan adhesive that is kept in the uncuredstate by oxygen, as in air, and that cures in the absence ofoxygen when exposed to metal ions, especially copper oriron. 1990 Aapparent viscosity, nin non-Newtonian behavior, the ratio ofthe shearing stress to the rate of shear of a fluid, given at thecorresponding shearing stress.assembly, nsee adhesive assembly.assembly adhesive, nan adhesive that can be used forbonding parts together, such as in the manufacture of a boat,airplane, furniture, and the like.DISCUSSIONThe term assembly adhesive is commonly used in thewood industry to distinguish such adhesives formerly called “jointglues” from those used in making plywood sometimes called “veneerglues”. It is applied to adhesives used in fabricating finished structuresor goods, or subassemblies thereof, as differentiated from adhesivesused in the production of sheet materials for sale as such, for example,plywood or laminates.assembly for adhesives, na group of materials or parts,including adhesive, placed together for bonding or which hasbeen bonded together.assembly time, nthe time interval between applying theadhesive on the substrate and the application of pressure, orheat, or both, to the assembly. See also closed assemblytime and open assembly time. 1990 RDISCUSSIONFor assemblies involving multiple layers or parts, theassembly begins with applying the adhesive on the first substrate.A-stage, nan early stage in the preparation of certainthermosetting resins, in which the material is still soluble incertain liquids, and fusible.autohesion, nadhesion developed by interdiffusion of themolecules of two surfaces of the same material and conse-quent obliteration of the interface between them. Some-times called “autoadhesion.” Compare blocking. 1990Abag molding, na method of molding or bonding involvingthe application of fluid pressure, usually by means of air,steam, water, or vacuum, to a flexible cover which, some-times in conjunction with the rigid die, completely enclosesthe material to be bonded.batch, nthe manufactured unit or a blend of two or moreunits of the same formulation and processing. Comparemanufactured unit.binder, nin adhesive compounds, a component of an adhe-sive composition that is primarily responsible for its me-chanical strength and adhesion. 2005 RD907 − 152blister, nan elevation of the surface of varied contour anddimensions, with a void beneath it. 2005 Rblocked curing-agent, na curing or hardening agent tempo-rarily rendered unreactive, which can be reactivated asdesired by physical or chemical means.blocking, nan undesired adhesion between touching layersof a material, such as occurs under moderate pressure duringstorage or use.bond, nthe attachment between an adhesive and an adher-end.edge joint, nin wood bonding, a type of laminate jointmade by bonding adherends edge-to-edge with grain directionsparallel to form wider stock.face joint, nin wood bonding, a type of laminate joint madeby bonding adherends face-to-face with grain directions paral-lel to form thicker stock.laminate joint, nin wood bonding, a joint made by bondinglayers of adherends face-to-face or edge-to-edge to formthicker or wider stock.bond, vto join adherends by means of an adhesive.bondline, nthe layer of adhesive which attaches two adher-ends. See interphase. 2005 Rbond strength, nthe unit load applied to tension,compression, flexure, peel, impact, cleavage, or shear, re-quired to break an adhesive assembly with failure occurringin or near the plane of the bond. See also adhesion andbond.DISCUSSIONThe term adherence is frequently used in place of bondstrength.dry strength, nthe strength of an adhesive joint determinedimmediately after drying under specified conditions or after aperiod of conditioning in a standard laboratory atmosphere.wet strength, nthe strength of an adhesive joint determinedimmediately after removal from a liquid in which it has beenimmersed under specified conditions of time, temperature, andpressure.DISCUSSIONThe term is commonly used alone to designate strengthafter immersion in water. In latex adhesives the term is also used todescribe the joint strength when the adherends are brought togetherwith the adhesive still in the wet state.B-stage, nan intermediate stage in the reaction of certainthermosetting resins in which the material swells when incontact with certain liquids and softens when heated, butmay not entirely dissolve or fuse.built-up laminated wood, nsee built-up laminated woodunder wood laminate.bulk adherend, nas related to interphase, the adherend,unaltered by the adhesive. Compare to bulk adhesive.1988 Abulk adhesive, nas related to interphase, the adhesive,unaltered by the adherend. Compare to bulk adherend.1988 Acasein adhesive, nan aqueous colloidal dispersion of caseinthat may be prepared with or without heat, may containmodifiers, inhibitors, and secondary binders to providespecific adhesive properties, and includes a subclass, usuallyidentified as casein glue, that is based on a dry blend ofcasein, lime, and sodium salts, mixed with water andprepared without heat. 1989 Acatalyst, na substance that initiates or changes the rate ofchemical reaction, but is not consumed or changed by thereaction. See also hardener. Compare inhibitor.1990 Rcaul, na sheet of material employed singly or in pairs in hotor cold pressing of assemblies being bonded.DISCUSSIONAcaul is used to protect either the faces of the assemblyor the press platens, or both, against marring and staining to preventsticking; to facilitate press loading; to impart a desired surface textureor finish; and to provide uniform pressure distribution.DISCUSSIONA caul may be made of any suitable material such asaluminum, stainless steel, hardboard, fiberboard, or plastic; the lengthand width dimensions being generally the same as those of the plates ofthe press where it is used.cellular adhesive, nsee foamed adhesive.cement, nsee Discussion under adhesive.cement, vsee bond.cleavage, nin an adhesively bonded joint, a separation in thejoint caused by wedge or other crack-opening type action.1994 Acleavage-peel strength, nthe force per unit width of bond-line required to produce progressive separation by wedge orother crack-opening type action of two adherends where oneor both undergo significant bending. 1994 Acleavage strength, nthe force per unit width of bond linerequired to produce progressive separation by wedge orother crack-opening type action of two adherends.closed assembly time, nthe time between the assembling ofadhesive-coated surfaces and the application of heat and/orpressure to set the adhesive.cohesion, nthe state in which the constituents of a mass ofmaterial are held together by chemical and physical forces.1992 Rcohesion failure; cohesive failure, nrupture of a bondedassembly in which the separation appears visually to be inthe adhesive or the adherend.cohesive blocking, nsee blocking.cold flowsee creep.cold pressing, na bonding operation in which an assembly issubjected to pressure without the application of heat.cold-setting adhesive, nan adhesive that sets without theapplication of heat.colophony, nsee rosin.condensation, na chemical reaction in which two or moremolecules combine with the separation of water or someother simple substance. See also polymerization.D907 − 153DISCUSSIONThe process is called polycondensation if a polymer isformed.conditioning time, nsee joint conditioning time. See alsocuring time and setting time.consistency, nthat property of a liquid adhesive by virtue ofwhich it tends to resist deformation. See also viscosity andviscosity coefficient.DISCUSSIONConsistency is not a fundamental property but iscomprised of viscosity, plasticity, and othe

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