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Analytical Troubleshooting of Process Machinery and Pressure Vessels_ Including Real-World Case Studies 1st Edition by Anthony Sofronas

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Analytical Troubleshooting of Process Machinery and Pressure Vessels_ Including Real-World Case Studies 1st Edition by Anthony Sofronas

ANALYTICAL TROUBLESHOOTINGOF PROCESS MACHINERYAND PRESSURE VESSELSffirs.qxd 12/12/05 1051 AM Page iANALYTICAL TROUBLESHOOTINGOF PROCESS MACHINERYAND PRESSURE VESSELSIncluding Real-World Case StudiesANTHONY SOFRONASKingwood, TexasA JOHN WILEY SONS, INC., PUBLICATIONffirs.qxd 12/12/05 1051 AM Page iiiCopyright 2006 by John Wiley Sons, Inc. All rights reservedPublished by John Wiley Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New JerseyPublished simultaneously in CanadaNo part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any formor by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning, or otherwise, except aspermitted under Section 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without either the priorwritten permission of the Publisher, or authorization through payment of the appropriate per-copy fee tothe Copyright Clearance Center, Inc., 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, 978 750-8400, fax978 750-4470, or on the web at www.copyright.com. Requests to the Publisher for permission shouldbe addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley Sons, Inc., 111 River Street, Hoboken, NJ07030, 201 748-6011, fax 201 748-6008, or online at http//www.wiley.com/go/permission.Limit of Liability/Disclaimer of Warranty While the publisher and author have used their best effortsin preparing this book, they make no representations or warranties with respect to the accuracy orcompleteness of the contents of this book and specifically disclaim any implied warranties ofmerchantability or fitness for a particular purpose. No warranty may be created or extended by salesrepresentatives or written sales materials. The advice and strategies contained herein may not besuitable for your situation. You should consult with a professional where appropriate. Neither thepublisher nor author shall be liable for any loss of profit or any other commercial damages, includingbut not limited to special, incidental, consequential, or other damages.For general information on our other products and services or for technical support, please contact ourCustomer Care Department within the United States at 800 762-2974, outside the United States at317 572-3993 or fax 317 572-4002.Wiley also publishes its books in a variety of electronic formats. Some content that appears in print maynot be available in electronic formats. For more information about Wiley products, visit our web site atwww.wiley.com.Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication DataSofronas, Anthony.Analytical troubleshooting of process machinery and pressure vesselsincluding real-world case studies / Anthony Sofronas.p. cm.Includes index.ISBN-13 978-0-471-73211-2 clothISBN-10 0-471-73211-7 cloth1. MachineryMaintenance and repair. 2. Plant maintenance. I. Title.TJ153.S6375 2005621.816dc22 2005009734Printed in the United States of America10987654321ffirs.qxd 12/12/05 1051 AM Page ivTo My FamilyCruz, Steve, Mariaffirs.qxd 12/12/05 1051 AM Page vCONTENTSPreface xvii1 Introduction 12 Strength of Materials 42.1 Load Calculations, 42.2 Stress Calculations, 62.2.1 Axial Stress, 62.2.2 Shear Stress, 72.2.3 Bending Stress, 82.2.4 Torsional Stress, 92.2.5 Combined Stresses, 92.2.6 Thermal Stresses, 102.2.7 Transient Temperatures and Stresses, 112.2.8 High-Temperature Creep, 132.2.9 Shell Stresses, 152.3 Piping Thermal Forces, Moments, and Frequencies, 162.3.1 Piping Failures, 18viiftoc.qxd 12/12/05 1052 AM Page vii2.4 Allowable and Design Stresses, 212.5 Fatigue Due to Cyclic Loading, 222.6 Elongation and Deflection Calculations, 252.7 Factor of Safety, 282.8 Case History Agitator Steady Bearing Loading, 302.8.1 Additional Agitator Guidelines Single Impeller, 322.9 Case History Extruder Shaft Failure, 332.10 Dynamic Loading, 342.10.1 Centrifugal Force, 342.10.2 Inertias and WR2,362.10.3 Energy Relationships, 372.11 Case History Centrifuge Bearing Failures, 382.12 Case History Bird Impact Force on a Windscreen, 402.13 Case History Torsional Impact on a Propeller, 422.14 Case History Startup Torque on a Motor Coupling, 432.15 Case History Friction Clamping Due to Bolting, 442.16 Case History Failure of a Connecting Rod in a Race Car, 452.17 Bolting, 482.17.1 Holding Capacity, 482.17.2 Limiting Torque, 482.17.3 Bolt Elongation and Relaxation, 502.17.4 Torquing Methods, 512.17.5 Fatigue of Bolts, 522.17.6 Stripping Strength of Threads, 542.17.7 Case History Power Head Gasket Leak, 542.18 Ball and Roller Bearing Life Estimates, 582.18.1 Case History Bearing Life of a Shaft Support, 592.18.2 Coupling Offset and Bearing Life, 602.19 Hydrodynamic Bearings, 612.19.1 Shell and Pad Failures, 63viii CONTENTSftoc.qxd 12/12/05 1052 AM Page viii2.20 Gears, 652.20.1 Gear Acceptability Calculations, 652.20.2 Case History Uprate Acceptability of a Gear Unit, 692.21 Interference Fits, 722.21.1 Keyless Hydraulically Fitted Hubs, 752.21.2 Case History Taper Fit Holding Ability, 762.21.3 Case History Flying Hydraulically Fitted Hub, 782.22 Strength of Welds, 802.23 Fatigue of Welds, 812.24 Repair of Machinery, 822.24.1 Shafts, 822.24.2 Housings and Cases, 832.24.3 Gearboxes, 832.24.4 Sleeve Bearings and Bushing Clearances, 832.24.5 Alignments, 832.24.6 Acceptable Coupling Offset and Angular Misalignment, 842.24.7 Vibration Measurements, 842.25 Interpreting Mechanical Failures, 852.25.1 Failures with Axial, Bending, and Torsional Loading, 852.25.2 Gear Teeth Failures, 872.25.3 Spring Failures, 892.25.4 Bolt Failures, 902.25.5 Bearing Failures, 912.25.6 Reading a Bearing, 932.25.7 Large Gearbox Keyway and Shaft Failures, 952.26 Case History Sizing a Bushing Running Clearance, 962.27 Case History Galling of a Shaft in a Bushing, 992.28 Case History Remaining Fatigue Life with Cyclic Stresses, 1012.29 Procedure for Evaluating Gasketed Joints, 1032.30 Gaskets in High-Temperature Service, 106CONTENTS ixftoc.qxd 12/12/05 1052 AM Page ix2.31 O-Ring Evaluation, 1072.32 Case History Gasket That Won’t Pass a Hydrotest, 1082.33 Case History Heat Exchanger Leak Due to Temperature, 1092.34 Equipment Wear, 1132.35 Case History Excessive Wear of a Ball Valve, 1153 Vibration Analysis 1173.1 Spring–Mass Systems and Resonance, 1173.2 Case History Critical Speed Problem on Steam Turbine, 1213.3 Determining Vibration Amplitudes, 1233.3.1 Allowable Levels for X or F at Resonance, 1253.4 Case History Vibratory Torque on the Gear of a Ship System, 1253.5 Torsional Vibration, 1273.6 Case History Torsional Vibration of a Motor–Generator–Blower, 1283.7 Vibration Diagnosis and Campbell Diagrams, 1293.8 Case History Effect of a Torsional Load Applied Suddenly, 1343.9 Flow-Induced Vibrations, 1363.10 Case History Heat Exchanger Tube Vibration, 1373.11 Case History Piping Vibration Failures, 1384 Fluid Flow 1414.1 Continuity Equation, 1414.2 Bernoulli’s Equation, 1424.3 Pressure Drop, 1434.4 Forces Due to Fluids, 1434.5 Case History Piping Failure Due to Water Hammer, 1444.6 Case History Centrifugal Pump System, 1464.6.1 System Curves, 1464.6.2 Pump Curves, 1484.6.3 Net Positive Suction Head, 1504.6.4 Pump Laws, 1514.6.5 Series and Parallel Pump Operation, 152x CONTENTSftoc.qxd 12/12/05 1052 AM Page x4.6.6 Blocked-in-Pump Concern, 1534.6.7 Cryogenic Service Concerns, 1544.6.8 Pump Control, 1554.7 Case History Wreck of a Centrifugal Pump, 1554.8 Case History Airfoil Aerodynamic Loads, 1574.9 Case History Pressure Loss Through Slots, 1584.10 Friction Losses in Piping Systems, 1614.11 Case History Pipe Friction, 1625 Heat Transfer 1645.1 Conduction, 1645.2 Convection, 1655.3 Radiation, 1675.4 Heat Sources, 1685.5 Case History Insulation Burnout of a Resistor Bank, 1695.6 Case History Embedded Bearing Temperature, 1705.7 Types of Heat Exchangers, 1725.8 Heat Exchanger Design, 1735.9 Case History Verifying the Size of an Oil Cooler, 1765.10 Case History Temperature Distribution Along a Flare Line, 1785.11 Case History Derivation of Pipe Temperature Distribution, 1806 Compressor Systems and Thermodynamics 1826.1 Ideal Gas Laws, 1826.2 Case History Nonrelieving Explosion Relief Valve, 1846.3 Energy Equation, 1866.4 Case History Air Conditioner Feasibility Study, 1876.5 Centrifugal Compressor Operation, 1906.6 Compressor Configurations, 1926.7 Centrifugal Compressor Head, Flow, and Horsepower, 1936.8 Compressor Surge, 1956.9 Fan Laws, 197CONTENTS xiftoc.qxd 12/12/05 1052 AM Page xi6.10 Flow–Head Curve in Troubleshooting, 1976.11 Reciprocating Gas Compressors, 1986.12 Component Failures and Prevention, 1986.13 Reciprocating Compressor Horsepower Calculations, 2086.14 Troubleshooting Reciprocating Compressors Using Gas Calculations, 2106.15 Mechanical Seals, 2106.16 Flexible Gear, Diaphragm, and Disk Pack Couplings, 2117 Statistics 2187.1 Average, Range, Variance, and Standard Deviation, 2187.2 Histograms and Normal Distributions, 2197.3 Case History Power Cylinder Life Comparison, 2227.4 Mean Time Between Failures, 2237.5 Case History MTBF for a Gas Engine Compressor, 2237.6 Reliability, 2257.7 Deterministic and Probabilistic Modeling, 2288 Problem Solving and Decision Making 2298.1 The 80–20 Relationship, 2298.2 Going Through the Data, 2308.3 Problem-Solving Technique, 2328.4 Case History Loss of a Slurry Pump, 2348.5 Case History Fatigued Motor Shaft, 2358.6 Case History Coupling Failure, 2358.7 Case History Motorcycle Won’t Start, 2388.8 Case History Galled Die, 2388.9 Seven Causes, 2398.10 Decision-Making Technique, 2408.11 Case History Selection of a Barrel Lifter, 240xii CONTENTSftoc.qxd 12/12/05 1052 AM Page xii9 Materials of Construction 2429.1 Carbon Steels, 2449.2 High-Strength Low-Alloy Steels, 2459.3 Martensitic Stainless Steels, 2459.4 Austenitic Stainless Steels, 2459.5 Monel 400, 2469.6 17–4 PH, 2469.7 Incoloy 825, 2469.8 Inconel 718, 2469.9 Structural Steel, 2479.10 All Steels Are Not the Same, 2479.11 Useful Material Properties, 2479.12 Heat Treatments, 2489.13 Failure Modes of Shafts, Bolting, Structures, and Pressure Vessels, 2499.14 Fretting Corrosion, 25310 Mechanical System Modeling, with Case Histories 25910.1 Sizing Up the Problem, 25910.2 Case Histories, 26410.3 Failures Caused by Excessive Loads, 26410.3.1 Case History Agitator Bolt Failure, 26410.3.2 Case History Loosening of Counterweight Bolts, 26710.3.3 Case History Evaluating Internal Thread Strip-Out, 26910.3.4 Case History Analyzing a Spline Failure, 27110.3.5 Case History Bending of Impeller Blades, 27310.3.6 Case History Compressor Rod Failure, 27410.3.7 Case History Seal Failure Due to Misalignment of an Agitator Shaft, 27610.3.8 Case History Gear Tooth Pitting Failure, 27710.3.9 Case History Impact Load Effect on a Large Gearbox Bearing, 280CONTENTS xiiiftoc.qxd 12/12/05 1052 AM Page xiii10.3.10 Case History Motor Shaft Failure, 28410.3.11 Case History In-Flight Aircraft Crankshaft Failure, 28510.3.12 Case History Pitting Failure Due to a Poorly DistributedBearing Load, 28710.3.13 Case History Failure of a Preloaded Fan Bearing, 28910.3.14 Case History Separating Loads in an Extruder, 29110.3.15 Case History Containment of an Impeller, 29310.4 Failures Caused by Wear, 29610.4.1 Case History Examining the Wear of Extruder Screws, 29610.4.2 Case History Wear of a Spline Clutch, 30210.5 Failures Caused by Thermal Loads, 30510.5.1 Case History Thermal Distortions Move a 50-TonGearbox, 30510.5.2 Case History Thermally Bowed Shaft, 30710.5.3 Case History Steam Turbine Diaphragm Failure, 30910.5.4 Case History Screw Compressor Rotor Rub, 31110.5.5 Case History Hidden Load in a Three Bearing Machine, 31310.6 Miscellaneous Failures, 31510.6.1 Case History Crack Growth in a Rotor, 31510.6.2 Case History Structural Failure Due to Misalignment, 31710.6.3 Case History Oil Film Thickness of a Diesel Engine Bearing, 32110.6.4 Case History Leaking Flange Gasket, 32211 Fitness for Service, with Case Histories 32511.1 A Little About Corrosion, 32611.2 Stress Corrosion Cracking, 32711.3 Uniform Corrosion, 32811.3.1 Case History Local Corrosion of a Vessel Wall, 32811.4 Pitting Corrosion, 33011.4.1 Case History Pitting Corrosion of a Vessel Wall, 330xiv CONTENTSftoc.qxd 12/12/05 1052 AM Page xiv11.5 Brittle Fracture Concerns, 33111.5.1 Academic Example Temperature Effect on Steel Plate, 33311.5.2 Case History Crack Like Defect in a Vessel Wall, 33411.6 Cold Service Evaluations, 33611.6.1 Case History Cold Service Vessel, 33611.7 Crack Growth and Fatigue Life, 33911.8 Finding Those Cracks, 34111.9 Troubleshooting Isn’t Easy, 341References 345IndexCONTENTS xvftoc.qxd 12/12/05 1052 AM Page xvPREFACEPurpose of the BookA book such as this can only be written after one has worked in industry for manyyears. The case histories in this book represent a collection of over 40 years of prob-lem solving by the author. The examples are from several industries I have workedin, including the petrochemical, transportation, and component manufacturingindustries.Early in my career I realized that time was not available to become an expert inall of the pieces of equipment that I had to design or troubleshoot. Often, a piece ofequipment was the only one of its kind, such as a brake manufacturing grinding toolor a special drier or extruder. By analyzing the equipment using simple mathemat-ics in analytical models, the models could be used to obtain a better understandingof the equipment operation and failure modes. The models allowed me to examinethe internal workings of the equipment, to talk intelligibly with manufacturers, tounderstand changes that needed to be made for continued operation, and to growtechnically in my career. My desire is to transfer this knowledge to others with thehelp of this book. The material in the book has been presented in engineering sem-inars for many years and thus has input from many participants, and as such repre-sents an enhancement of the course notes.This is not a book about complex analytical solutions. It is a practical book thathas been used to design and troubleshoot over 90 of the equipment worked. Arough estimate is that the examples in this book have saved over 50 million in lostproduction or warranty claims by eliminating repeat failures or by avoiding failuresaltogether. This is because the failure cause had been well understood and preventedfrom occurring or recurring. These savings included the efforts of many other tal-ented specialists who worked the details involved in implementing the solutions,xviifpref.qxd 12/12/05 1053 AM Page xviiwhich is usually the most difficult part. Attention to the details can make thedifference between a successful startup and a painful one.High horsepower, speeds, temperatures, pressures, and abnormal operating con-ditions has made equipment engineering so complex that intuition and past experi-ences cannot be depended upon solely to solve problems. Safety, pro

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